By Roberto Scatena (auth.), Roberto Scatena, Alvaro Mordente, Bruno Giardina (eds.)
In contemporary years, melanoma stem cells were well-known as vital part in carcinogenesis they usually appear to shape the root of many (if no longer all) tumor varieties. melanoma stem cells or "cancer phone like stem cells" were remoted from numerous cancers of alternative beginning (blood, breast, mind, pores and skin, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). melanoma stem cells - infrequent cells with indefinite proliferative strength that force the formation and progress of tumours- appear to convey interesting relationships with physiological stem cells. in particular, those melanoma cells express major similarities within the mechanisms that keep watch over self-renewal of standard stem cells. in addition, tumour cells may well at once come up from common stem cells. additional, the mobile biology of melanoma stem cells convey loads of similarities with common stem cells.
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Extra resources for Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Biology
Furthermore, expression of the pluripotency gene Oct4 is detected in embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, and also in somatic cancers such as gliomas, lung adenocarcinomas, and prostate cancer. Interestingly, increased Oct4 expression is veriﬁed in high-grade gliomas and in prostate cancers with high Gleason scores, suggesting correlation with tumor malignancy (Du et al. 2009; Ngan et al. 2008; Karoubi et al. 2009; Sotomayor et al. 2009). Re-expression of embryonic stem cell-related genes, including downstream targets of Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, is also predominantly found in aggressive tumors and correlates with poor clinical outcome (Ben-Porath et al.
2007). K. Okamoto radioresistant CSCs such as those from prostate tumors (Marian and Shay 2009), supporting the relevance of hTERT to the balance between senescence and longevity of normal and neoplastic stem cells. Posttranscriptional Orchestration by MicroRNAs Many aspects of the biology of stem cells, including maintenance of pluripotency, self-renewal, and differentiation, are controlled by the phenomenon of RNA interference involving a variety of small molecules of RNA. The mRNA of a target gene can be degraded through the action of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).
312, 3701–3710 (2006). Hirschmann-Jax C, Foster AE, Wulf GG et al. A distinct “side population” of cells with high drug efﬂux capacity in human tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101, 14228–14233 (2004). Hu T, Liu S, Breiter DR, Wang F, Tang Y, Sun S. Octamer 4 small interfering RNA results in cancer stem cell-like cell apoptosis. Cancer Res. 68(16), 6533–6540 (2008). Huang G, Zheng Q, Sun J, et al. Stabilization of cellular properties and differentiation multipotential of human mesenchymal stem cells transduced with hTERT gene in a long-term culture.