By Jean Meeus
Meeus J. Astronomical formulae for calculators (4ed., Willmann-Bell, 1988)(ISBN 0943396220)
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Extra info for Astronomical formulae for calculators
We call it a star. So if we identify an object as a star, we understand that (1) it has its own source of continuous energy, (2) the amount of energy it releases is balanced by the amount of energy it produces, and (3) the outward radiation force is exactly balanced by the inward gravitational force. This is the definition of a normal star. The word “planet” is derived from the Greek word “planetos” means wanderer. Thousands of years ago people of various ancient civilizations noticed that hundreds and thousands of lights moved around the night sky.
In 1766, Johann Daniel Titius discovered a relationship among the distances of various planets from the Sun. The distance between the Earth and the Sun is called one Astronomical Unit or AU. 6 million km. Titius found that the distances of the planets followed an arithmetical pattern. 3) ¼ 10 AU. 7 AU, and so on. Note that the first and the last numbers remain unchanged while the middle one changes in a specific way (0 for Mercury and power of 2 for other planets). 2 AU from the Sun. 8 AU from the Sun.
The speed of sound in any medium is directly proportional to the square root of the temperature of that medium. Therefore, the disturbance travels faster if the medium is hotter and it travels slower if the medium is cooler. Suppose this disturbance takes a time t to travel a distance R within the cloud. As this disturbance passes through the cloud, the pressure tends to bring back the medium to its original stable condition. At the same time the gravitational force tries to pull matter towards the center so that there is a tug of war between the outward pressure and the gravitational force in this disturbed or perturbed region.