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Download Atome, Moleküle, Festkörper by Arthur Beiser (auth.) PDF

By Arthur Beiser (auth.)

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10- 11 m einsetzen, find en wir die Wellenlange des Elektrons zu Diese Wellenlange entspricht genau dem Umfang der Elektronenbahn 21fr I, l00nm - Daher erhalten wir = 33 . 10-11 m. 41f' 8 ,85 '10- 12 F/m . 5,3 '10- 11 m A. = 663 ' 1,6 . 10-19 C 9,1 . 6 Spektraiserien des Wasserstoffs = 33 '10- 11 m. 7). Dieses Ergebnis ist ein wiehtiger Sehltissel zur Entwieklung einer Atomtheorie. 8) betrachten, so finden wir, d~ der Sehleifenumfang stets ein ganzzahliges Vielfaches der Wellenlange ist. Ware der Draht vollstandig elastiseh, wtirden diese Schwingungen ungedampft fortdauern.

8 \ \\ " "" e \ \ \ I I positiver Kern e " ............. ; 8 // /' 8 ........... 3 Das Rutherfordsche Atommodell \ / ,,/ ;' / I gleichmaBig in seinem Volumen verteilt ist, und wenn wir die Elektronen vollstandig vernachiassigen, betragt die elektrische Feldstarke auf der Oberflache des Atoms (dort hat sie ihren groBten Wert), etwa 1013 Vim. Nehmen wir andererseits mit Rutherford an, daB die positive Ladung in einem Goldatom in einem kleinen Kern im Mittelpunkt des Atoms konzentriert ist, tibersteigt die Feldstarke an der Oberflache des Kerns 10 21 Vim, also urn den Faktor 10 8 .

16) 1) n =6, 7, 8, .. 17) nf = 4: m e4 1 (1 - n2 nf=5 : ~=8€~Ch3 52-n2 Diese Reihen stimmen in ihrer Form mit den empirischen Spektralserien tiberein, die wir frtiher diskutierten. Die LymanSerie (Gl. 2)) entspricht nf = 1 , die Balmer-Serie (Gl. 1)) nf =2, die Paschen-Serie nf = 3, die Brackett-Serie nf =4 und die Pfund-Serie nf = 5.

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