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Download Atomic spectra and atomic structure by Gerhard Herzberg PDF

By Gerhard Herzberg

For newbies and experts in different fields: the Nobel Laureate's broadly popular creation to atomic spectra and their dating to atomic buildings, stressing easy rules. The remedy is actual, instead of mathematical, with test serving because the place to begin for conception. eighty illustrations.

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90) From this definition, we can easily write (for equal trapping frequencies, ! 2 ) 1 12 D N1 C N2 ! 91) It is possible to verify that this result is similar to that obtained in for a single specie, as discussed in the previous section. Noticing that we are here considering a trapped gas, Eq. N1 C N2 /= ho , which would simply yield [33] col1 D =3, where D N ! 3 M=2 2 T is the average collision rate in a harmonic trap. There are species for which the collision frequencies and 87 12 interspecies are very similar, as it is the case of Rb [34].

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12), we can also write Eq. 22) Alternatively, we could transform Eq. 16) that the following relation is true exp. 24) This allows us to write, starting from any of the Eqs. r; k/ D hr O C s=2i exp. r; k/ is clearly a classical quantity, and is known as the Weyl O It can be seen as the classical counterpart tranformation of the quantum operator A. O of the operator A, in the same way as the Wigner function W is the classical counterpart of the state vector j i. It should be noticed that Eq. r; k/ replaces the corresponding quantum operator.

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