By Gerhard Herzberg
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Those indexes are precious volumes within the serial, bringing jointly what has been released over the last 38 volumes. They contain a preface via the editor of the sequence, an writer index, a topic index, a cumulative checklist of bankruptcy titles, and listings of contents by way of quantity. summary: those indexes are useful volumes within the serial, bringing jointly what has been released over the last 38 volumes.
At super low temperatures, clouds of bosonic atoms shape what's often called a Bose-Einstein condensate. lately, it has turn into transparent that many differing types of condensates -- so referred to as fragmented condensates -- exist. as a way to inform even if fragmentation happens or no longer, it can be crucial to resolve the entire many-body Schrödinger equation, a role that remained elusive for experimentally suitable stipulations for a few years.
This publication examines the character of the coherent excitation produced in atoms via lasers. It examines the targeted brief edition of excited-state populations with time and with controllable parameters comparable to laser frequency and depth. The dialogue assumes modest past wisdom of undemanding quantum mechanics and, in a few sections, nodding acquaintance with Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics.
Advances within the physics and chemistry of low-dimensional structures were fairly wonderful within the previous couple of many years. enormous quantities of quasi-one-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional platforms were synthesized and studied. the preferred representatives of quasi-one-dimensional fabrics are polyacethylenes CH  and undertaking donor-acceptor molecular crystals TIF z TCNQ.
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90) From this definition, we can easily write (for equal trapping frequencies, ! 2 ) 1 12 D N1 C N2 ! 91) It is possible to verify that this result is similar to that obtained in for a single specie, as discussed in the previous section. Noticing that we are here considering a trapped gas, Eq. N1 C N2 /= ho , which would simply yield  col1 D =3, where D N ! 3 M=2 2 T is the average collision rate in a harmonic trap. There are species for which the collision frequencies and 87 12 interspecies are very similar, as it is the case of Rb .
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12), we can also write Eq. 22) Alternatively, we could transform Eq. 16) that the following relation is true exp. 24) This allows us to write, starting from any of the Eqs. r; k/ D hr O C s=2i exp. r; k/ is clearly a classical quantity, and is known as the Weyl O It can be seen as the classical counterpart tranformation of the quantum operator A. O of the operator A, in the same way as the Wigner function W is the classical counterpart of the state vector j i. It should be noticed that Eq. r; k/ replaces the corresponding quantum operator.