By Gavrila M. (ed.)
The sphere of laser-atom interactions has gone through unbelievable growth lately, due basically to the arrival of superintense laser radiation. New phenomena were stumbled on over a large variety of frequencies, from microwaves to the noticeable, and to X-rays, which require novel theoretical techniques. This publication includes a targeted choice of overviews of the most recent advances, written by means of a number of the major experts. it really is addressed to all these lively in those fields, however it includes enough introductory info to make it valuable for a extra normal viewers. The ebook examines the consequences of superintense laser fields on multiphoton ionization and harmonic new release; covers novel results with ultrashort, subpicosecond laser pulses; positive aspects Rydberg atoms in severe microwave fields; and offers nonperturbative theories of laser-atom interactions, reminiscent of the Floquet equipment and the time based Schroedinger schooling procedure.
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Extra resources for Atoms in intense laser fields
These facts limit the applicability of photon–free atom cross sections to condensed media. These limits can be demonstrated by comparing calculations based on free atom cross sections with experimental data on the passage of relatively longwavelength photons through solids and liquids. A point of comparison is usefully made via the measured total photon attenuation through solids or liquids at room temperature. Experimental attenuation is obtained from tabulated indices of refraction. With this, one can compare the attenuation that would be predicted using photon–free atom scattering.
The number of reactions per second per unit volume in the target is R ¼ NsFp , and the number of reactions per second in the volume is RdV ¼ NsFp ddA. 4 Omnidirectional flux Fom (particles=cm2=sec) of a gas of particles impinging on one side of a material slab of thickness D. The flux is imagined nonzero in 4p steradians in the space surrounding the slab, but for D thick compared with a particle mean free path only those incident from above can reach volume element dV ¼ ddA. J. 4. Such an omnidirectional flux may be that of a neutron field near a reactor, or environmental background neutrons or photons, or the flux of gammas in an experimental chamber in which there is much scattering.
It is manifested in small oscillations in the total absorption cross section just below the K edge [Sa88]. Otherwise, it is seldom important, partly because such finely defined incident x-rays are seldom encountered in practice. It is, however, more important for absorption of visible and UV photons (from the L, M, . . shells). At those energies, electronic Raman scattering can be a useful diagnostic. It is a fairly new subject of research; it is employed, for example, in studying the electronic structure of superconductors [De00].