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By Trevor Mellard

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A potentiometer driven by the motor provides speed and position feedback to form a self-contained positioning system. 4(c). These motors are used where precise position control is necessary along with high-speed operation. shows a small electric linear actuator which com­ prises a low voltage DC motor and short gear train driving a lead screw to provide the linear output, primarily designed for operating flaps in a heater or air conditioning unit. One interesting development is the adaptation of a DC motor to provide linear motion directly, over a long stroke with a constant mechanical force.

The operating pressure (atmospheric and/or partial vacuum in the inlet manifold) is controlled by solenoid operated valve(s) which regulate the pressure difference either side of the diaphragm, so producing a linear movement. 9 outlines the operating principles of a typical electro-pneumatic actuator. Generator electronic systems The satisfactory performance of a vehicle's electrical and electronic components depends to a certain extent on a reliable and constantly available supply of power. It is the task of the generator and its associated control electronics to provide the on-board electrical power to supply loads and for storage in the battery.

Reaction limits the maximum current flow at full load, so at high speeds a weak magnetic flux is Low voltage operation sufficient for generating the necessary output volt­ Whenever the actual output voltage is below the age. maximum preset generator voltage, no current 44 Automotive Electronic Systems tection diode Dp, is connected in parallel with the rotor field excitation winding, allowing decay of residual current whenever a voltage spike occurs. The self-induced voltage spikes are of a higher potential than the generated output voltage and so diode D p conducts as they occur, dissipating their energy as heat.

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