By Mark Stenhoff
Down comes a deluge of sonorous hail, Or prone-descending rain. Wide-rent, the clouds Pour an entire flood, and but, its flame unquenched, Th’unconquerable lightning struggles via. Ragged and fierce, or in purple whirling balls, And fires the mountains with redoubled rage. Black from the stroke, above, the smould’ring pine Stands a tragic shattered trunk; and, stretched lower than, a dull crew the blasted livestock lie. James Thompson, “The Seasons” (1727) were investigating ball lightning for greater than 20 years. I released a ball lightning document in Nature in 1976 that obtained around the world exposure and that i therefore many folks wrote to me with bills in their personal studies. inside of a truly little while, I had amassed approximately two hundred firsthand money owed, and the dossier has endured to develop progressively in view that then. a number of issues inspired me. Few of these who wrote to me had any certain foreknowledge of ball lightning on the time in their statement. still, as soon as experiences of different phenomena akin to St. Elmo’s hearth were eradicated, the remainder descriptions have been remarkably constant. in addition, approximately all who contacted me have been prepared to have an evidence of what they'd obvious and appeared fullyyt honest
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Extra info for Ball lightning : an unsolved problem in atmospheric physics
The step potential is discussed in Chapters 2 and 4. If the electric field due to the step potential exceeds about 100 to 200 kV m-1, the soil will break down. Electric arcs may then be observed on the soil. A related model by Lowke (1996) is discussed in Chapter 13. 5). A localized electric arc may be created by a side-flash, for example, between a branch of a tree and another object, or between two separated conductors within a building. A side flash may allow current to penetrate buildings via conductors such as the mains cable or water supply pipes.
This is a developing and large area of study in which many questions remain unanswered and there are many differences of opinion. For the sake of brevity, some of these differences have been smoothed over in this chapter, and the explanation here is necessarily simplified. It is intended to be sufficient to enable an understanding of the probable relationship between ball lightning and conventional linear lightning. For a more thorough understanding, which is essential for all those who study ball lightning, the reader is referred to the several excellent reviews of this topic.
Thus +CG lightning with high values of action integral is associated with a large heating and mechanical stress effect. Ball lightning models requiring large currents or heating effects may describe phenomena that would be expected to be associated with positive lightning. These models include those describing the ablation or puncturing of a solid surface. Turman (1977) reported satellite detection of a rare and outstandingly energetic form of lightning flash, which he called a lightning superbolt*.