By Donghui Zhang
Zhang reviews 3 domain names of acculturation--language attitudes, cultural participation and social network--in relation to domestic language upkeep. Her effects point out that whereas most folks use chinese language as their dominant language, nearly all of the second-generation kids want utilizing English. the various language attitudes and personal tastes accompany inter-generational clash. mom and dad see domestic language upkeep as serious to family members team spirit and second-generation youngsters develop into language and cultural agents in the kin. Co-ethnic networks, together with nuclear family ties, kids s co-ethnic friends, and the co-ethnic group, are very important forces that give a contribution to kids s domestic language upkeep.
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Additional info for Between Two Generations: Language Maintenance and Acculturation Among Chinese Immigrant Families (The New Americans: Recent Immigration and American Society)
Cantonese) speakers constituting more than 90% of the total respondents in the survey. Moreover, Wiley et al. found that none of the Chinese speakers are monolingual, instead they exhibit a high level of multilingualism, with a large number of the respondents speaking English, Mandarin and a Chinese dialect. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION The Chinese constitutes the largest share of Asian population and roughly has the same geographical distribution as the Asians in total. According to Census 2000, of all respondents who reported Asian, 49 percent lived in the West, 20 percent lived in the Northeast, 19 percent lived in the South, and 12 percent lived in the Midwest (US Census 40 Between Two Generations Bureau 2002a & 2002b).
In view of the fact that many non-Chinese speakers are learning their heritage language, the loss of Chinese among the heritage language speakers has become a deplorable issue. The Chinese parents and communities are working hard towards the maintenance of the heritage language among their American-born descendents. However, research directly dealing with the maintenance of the Chinese languages in different Chinese communities has been little. Although literature on language maintenance and language shift in the US has been extensive, many of these studies focus on the Spanish-speaking immigrants and their children’s language maintenance and bilingual development.
Portes & Hao (2002: 907) pointed out: “It is fluent bilingualism rather than English monolingualism that is associated with the more desirable results in terms of family relations and Language Maintenance, Language Shift and Acculturation 19 psycho-social adjustment”. Immigrant children’s heritage language abilities not only influence their own cultural adjustment and bring them psycho-social benefits in the course of acculturation, they also affect the well-beings of the whole immigrant families.