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Download Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements PDF

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

This record examines the literature on organic results of publicity to modulated radiofrequency (RF) strength to figure out even if current publicity criteria and guidance must be changed extra to take modulation under consideration. Modulation happens in a wide selection of kinds really good for radar, instant communications, broadcast communications, and business strategies with the outcome that many waveforms, pulse widths, spectral homes, and temporal styles desire attention. In pulse modulation the RF power is quickly switched off and on, while amplitude modulation produces a regularly altering point of RF power. Frequency-modulated RF strength has sign amplitudes that stay primarily consistent, yet differ in frequency inside a few narrowly prescribed diversity and extra heavily resembles nonmodulated RF power than pulsed or amplitude modulated RF fields. For radar, pulses commonly have periods measured in fractions of a microsecond to some microseconds. durations among pulses (or pulse teams) are significantly longer leading to low accountability cycle, that's, RF strength is on for a small fraction of time in the course of every one interval. yet pulsed indications used for communications platforms could have intervals within the diversity of milliseconds, better responsibility cycles, and extra modulation positive aspects. really expert army platforms represent a subcategory with very excessive, short pulses.
• entrance topic
• Preface
• desk of Contents
• govt precis
1. creation
2. In vitro stories
three. In vivo experiences
• four. Human stories
• five. Epidemiological reviews
6. Biophysical issues
• 7. dialogue and Conclusions
• Acronyms
• References
• The NCRP
• NCRP Commentaries

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Extra resources for Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields

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62 GHz or the same radar coupled to a Stanford linear energy doubler (SLED). This is a pulse-forming device (designated as ITT–2972) that enhanced peak power by a factor of nine by adding a high power pulse to the radar pulse. The effects of both types of pulses were compared to sham exposure. 77 MW m–2 for the radar pulses. 8 µs radar pulse width; 50 ns SLED pulse width) for 20 min and produced averaged whole-body SARs of 2, 4 or 6 W kg –1. Compared to sham exposures, significant alterations of lever responding, reaction time, and earned food pellets occurred during microwave exposure at 4 and 6 W kg –1, but not at 2 W kg –1.

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1978). “Ionic factors in release of 45Ca++ from chick cerebral tissue by electromagnetic fields,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 6314–6318. F. (1984). A. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina). C. E. (1979). “Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radio-frequency radiation: Effects of modulation frequency and field strength,” Radio Sci. 14, 93–98. A. M. (1980). “Induction of calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue by radiofrequency radiation: Effect of 43 ©NCRP 2005 – All rights reserved COMPLIMENTARY COPY Single user authorization only, copying and networking prohibited 44 / REFERENCES sample number and modulation frequency on the power density window,” Bioelectromagnetics 1, 35–43.

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