By Jack M. Winters (auth.), Jack M. Winters, Patrick E. Crago (eds.)
Most regimen motor initiatives are advanced, regarding load transmission via out the physique, tricky stability, and eye-head-shoulder-hand-torso-leg coor dination. the hunt towards knowing how we practice such projects with ability and beauty, frequently within the presence of unpredictable perturbations, has an extended heritage. This publication arose from the 9th Engineering origin Con ference on Biomechanics and Neural keep watch over of circulation, held in Deer Creek, Ohio, in June 1996. This specific convention, which has met each 2 to four years because the past due Sixties, is celebrated for its casual layout that promotes high-level, up to date discussions at the key matters within the box. The reason is to catch the prime quality ofthe wisdom and discourse that's an essential component of this convention sequence. The booklet is prepared into ten sections. part I offers a short intro duction to the terminology and conceptual foundations of the sector of circulation ment technological know-how; it truly is meant basically for college kids. All yet of the re maining 9 sections proportion a standard layout: (l) a delegated part editor; (2) an introductory didactic bankruptcy, solicited from well-known lead ers; and (3) 3 to 6 cutting-edge point of view chapters. a few in step with spective chapters are by way of commentaries via chosen specialists that offer stability and perception. part VI is the most important part, and it con sists of 9 viewpoint chapters with no commentaries.
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Additional resources for Biomechanics and Neural Control of Posture and Movement
An analog filter works on present and past data, but does not have access to future data. , 6O-cycle noise). , perhaps 10 Hz), and can then employ a low-pass filter to smooth the data. A wide variety of digital filters are available. Some work in real-time, others work off-line. In the latter case "future" data can also used within the filtering scheme. , the well-known Nyquist sampling theorem). , rectify and smooth) before it is sampled (Loeb and Gans 1986). One can also distinguish filters by the general form of the algorithm.
This instantaneous "viscosity" is an ongoing function of both activation and velocity, which makes it highly nonlinear (Winters and Stark 1987). , see Zahalak 1990). This represents a classic example of natural tension between "reductionist" science (focusing on understanding the underlying biophysical mechanisms) and "systems" science (focusing on capturing input-output behavior), which permeates most fields of science. 23 Occasionally there is true overlap between the modeling approaches; Zahalak's (1981, 1990) Distribution Moment model of muscle is one such example.
Each channel of measured information (or data) includes both "signal" and "noise" content. Noise is that aspect of the information that is not wanted, and con- 26 sidered spurious. , 60-cycle noise; a steady drift; discretization). One normally desires a high signal-to-noise ratio, and employs filters to help massage data into a more useful form. Some filters work in real-time, others off-line. For practical purposes, filters can be separated into two categories: analog and digital. An analog filter works on present and past data, but does not have access to future data.