By Emilio Bombardieri, Gianni Bonadonna, Luca Gianni
There can by no means be adequate fabric within the public area approximately cancers, and especially breast melanoma. This publication provides a lot to the literature. It offers common info on breast melanoma administration and considers all new tools of prognosis and treatment. It makes a speciality of nuclear drugs modalities by means of evaluating their effects with different diagnostic and healing methods. The insurance offers readers with updated wisdom on breast melanoma in addition to info at the advances within the box of analysis. It additionally information info at the improvement of a few new modalities and offers a common evaluate of the on hand instruments for breast melanoma therapy.
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Additional resources for Breast Cancer: Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Options
Surprisingly, other clinically relevant variables such as menopausal status, tumour size and nodal status were not associated with very dissimilar gene expression patterns, suggesting that these important clinico-pathological prognostic variables capture essentially information about the disease stage rather than intrinsic biological properties of the tumour. Moreover, such a comprehensive molecular approach, applied by different research groups using different technological platforms, has already identiﬁed expression proﬁ les that differentiate node-negative breast cancer patients with distinct prognosis that otherwise may have been indistinguishable (van’t Veer et al.
2000). However, ﬁndings relating biomarker expression to treatment response should be further investigated on independent adjuvant settings and analysed with techniques appropriately developed to test the biomarker’s clinical utility. 23 24 M. G. Daidone et al. 1. Evaluation proﬁle of tissue biomarkers as prognostic factors Studies with LOE1: Characteristics: identiﬁcation of: 1 2 3 patients with distinct outcome Reproducibility Feasibility Yes Assessed with QCPs3 Intermediate Prospective determination (based on an active incorporation of nucleotide precursors): fresh tissue and speciﬁc procedures required Yes Assessed with QCPs problems with data interpretation Intermediate-low Better results obtained from fresh or frozen tissue; speciﬁc procedures/ devices required a signiﬁcant % of study population Proliferation-related markers2 TLI, BrdULI FCM-SPF √ √ KI67, MIB-1 MI, MAI, M/V √ √ √ √ √ Yes Yes √ √ Yes Yes Not yet assessed High IHC4 on formalin-ﬁxed parafﬁn-embedded sections √ √ Yes Yes Assessed with QCPs High Routinely determined during diagnosis Cyclin E √ Yes Yes Not yet assessed Intermediate Better results obtained by techniques requiring frozen tissue and speciﬁc procedures p27 √ Yes Yes Not yet assessed High IHC on formalin-ﬁxed parafﬁn-embedded sections √ Yes Yes Assessed with QCPs Intermediate: Fresh or frozen tissue required Invasion-related markers5 uPA/PAI-1 √ √ 1Level of evidence.
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of interactions existing among the most common tumour-associated biomarkers in breast cancer [modiﬁed from (Arciero et al. 2004)]. AR androgen receptor; CDKI, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; ER estrogen receptor; HIF hypoxia inducible factor; MMP, matrix metalloproteases; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PgR progesterone receptor; TIMP tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases; uPA urokinase-type plasminogen activator; VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor 19 Biomarkers for Breast Cancer: Towards the Proposition of Clinically Relevant Tools* a b Fig.