By G. Barry Pierce (auth.), Stewart Sell (eds.)
Developmental melanoma items (oncodevelopmental markers, ODM) not just function diagnostic and prognostic signs but additionally can be utilized to review the character of the carcinogenic technique and the biology of tumors. for a few years oncologists have sought for markers of melanoma cells that may enable unequivocal reputation of melanoma unlike noncancerous tissue. The earliest and nonetheless most generally used approach to id of melanoma tissue or cells is the structural resemblance of melanoma tissue to fetal or immature tissue. Pathologists not just realize melanoma by means of its morphologic similarity to fetal tissues, but in addition repeatedly can relate the habit of a given tumor to the measure of tissue differentiation. therefore, poorly differentiated tumors that resemble fetal tissue in most cases develop extra speedily and metastasize prior to do well-differentiated tumors that extra heavily resemble grownup tissue. in recent times the commonality of fetal and melanoma tissue has been prolonged to items of tumor cells that, will be analyzed by means of biochemical, immunological, or physiological innovations. Increas ingly, items of melanoma cells just like fetal items are being pointed out and studied. those items variety from cell-surface markers (fetal or differentiation antigens), placental proteins, hormones, and isoenzymes to a mess of goods, resembling carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alphafetoprotein (AFP), lymphocyte markers, and nucleic acids, akin to tRNA, which are produced in small quantities by means of v vi PREFACE continuously differentiating cells within the grownup yet in a lot larger quantities via tumors.
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Extra resources for Cancer Markers: Diagnostic and Developmental Significance
1978a) have described X-chromosome inactivation of female teratocarcinoma stem cells when differentiation occurred in vitro. This is an elegant demonstration of the things that can be done using teratocarcinomas as models of differentiation. 2. BIOCHEMISTRY OF EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA In addition to morphological differentiation of somatic cells from embryonal carcinoma in vitro, it has been possible to study the development of specific molecules biochemically and immunochemically and to relate these findings to specific cell types.
16 G. BARRY PIERCE Kahan and Ephrussi (1970), Rosenthal et aL (1970), and Martin and Evans (1975) studied many c10nally derived lines of teratocarcinomas in vitro and laid the basis for much of what we know about the reactions of the cells in culture. Whereas the cells used by Kahan and Ephrussi (1970) required feeder layers, those of Rosenthal et aL (1970) did not. , in vitro, whereas others do not. The reason for these variable requirements is not known, but the observation has been confirmed by many others.
The maximum number observed in a testis was 11. When tumors became clinically evident, there was only a single focus, and the conclusion must be reached that either the foci grew together and became admixed (the resulting tumor would be multiclonal in origin) or one focus survived and the others died (monoclonal origin). There is no evidence that the smallest foci die, resulting in a single clone. On the other hand, there is ample biochemical evidence that at the time of clinical appearance, human tumors have isoenzymic markers compatible with the interpretation that the tumors originated from a single cell carrying that isoenzymic marker.