By Robert Field
An exam of the rules of the topic of chemical engineering which clarifies a number of the hyperlinks among it and a degree technological know-how. The textual content additionally explores the paintings performed through chemical engineers, illustrates the advantages to society and indicates the hyperlinks among and daily items.
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Additional resources for Chemical Engineering: Introductory Aspects
In the North Sea there is a weather 'window' during the summer when it is possible to tow out platforms and complete the installation. If because of delays in construction the fabrication is finished in October instead of April, the six months' delay may well cost a year's production. For a project costing £200 million generating an annual income of £50 million when 'on stream', the pay back period can be defined as capital cost/annual income, which in this case is 4 years. If the project is delayed 12 months and the interest charged on the £200 million is 25 per cent per annum, what then is the pay-back period and by how many years is the breakeven point delayed?
However, the following example, which is simplified, shows that less than half of the energy available in the steam is converted into work. 9 A steam driven turbine is used to produce work. 88. Calculate (a) the energy produced per kg of steam and (b) the energy produced as a fraction of the energy available in the inlet steam. How much energy in the form of latent heat is left in the exit stream? 88 indicates that the stream leaving the turbine is 88 per cent steam and 12 per cent water. A constant entropy expansion is the ideal expansion for the production of maximum work, and more advanced work would show that the exit conditions are 5 bar and 152°C.
2 shows that as milk is concentrated, the nature of the fluid changes. At low concentrations it behaves as a Newtonian fluid with viscosity being constant for all rates of shear. However, above 25 per cent protein, the material is particularly viscous at low rates of shear. This fact is very important in cheese manufacture and those designing dairy plants have to ensure that a minimum rate of shear is maintained in the processing equipment which will include heat exchangers and maybe membrane units.