By Taoufik Bourdi
Lately, instant LAN criteria have emerged out there. these criteria function in quite a few frequency levels. to minimize part count number, it really is of significance to layout a multi-mode frequency synthesizer that serves all instant LAN criteria together with 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g criteria. With various necessities for these criteria, designing integer-based phase-locked loop frequency synthesizers cannot be accomplished. Fractional-N frequency synthesizers supply the answer required for a standard multi-mode neighborhood oscillator. these fractional-N synthesizers are in accordance with delta-sigma modulators which together with a divider yield the fractional department required for the specified frequency of interest.In CMOS unmarried Chip quickly Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for instant Multi-Gigahertz purposes, the authors define exact layout method for quick frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications purposes. nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma dependent part locked loops from necessities, method research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation.The publication describes an effective layout and characterization method that has been constructed to check loop trade-offs in either open and shut loop modelling strategies. this can be in response to a simulation platform that comes with either behavioral types and measured/simulated sub-blocks of the selected frequency synthesizer. The platform predicts adequately the part noise, spurious and switching functionality of the ultimate layout. for that reason very good section noise and spurious functionality could be completed whereas assembly all of the certain specifications. The layout technique reduces the necessity for silicon re-spin allowing circuit designers to without delay meet expense, functionality and agenda milestones.The built wisdom and methods were utilized in the profitable layout and implementation of 2 excessive velocity multi-mode fractional-N frequency synthesizers for the IEEE 801.11a/b/g criteria. either synthesizer designs are defined in info.
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Additional info for Cmos Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers For Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications
This will help suppress the in-band phase noise of the ∆−Σ frequency synthesizer. Above 500 kHz, the PLL loop filter should filter out the phase noise of the MASH modulator. Therefore, the usage of the MASH modulator is a key factor in reducing the phase noise plateau in fractional-N frequency synthesizer. Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers 39 Figure 3-18. 1 Fractional-N Case Study In this section, a case study is presented for a ∆−Σ-based frequency synthesizer used in the WLAN standard. The selected output frequency was chosen to yield a fractional division ratio.
4 Chapter 4 The PFD/CP The noise sources of the PFD and CP are added as random noise similar to the reference oscillator case . The PFD/CP linearity curve could also be included as a data file, showing the duty cycle versus CP, to gauge the effect of the dead zone as shown in Figure 4-3. 5 The Loop Filter The loop filter uses real components rather than a transfer function and therefore the noise due to the resistors although negligible adds up to the overall noise of the loop; thus their noise should be taken into account when phase noise frequency-domain analysis is performed.
The loop filter is usually of second order. However, a third-order loop filter could be used if spurii of the PFD sampling feed-through are to be suppressed . A typical illustration for the sourcing and sinking of the CP currents is shown in Figure 3-4. The gain of such a CP is normally given by ICP and its unit is in amperes. Vsup Vsup Vsup Iup Iup Iup Up Up Up Icp Icp Icp Dn Dn Dn Zs Idn Zs Zs Idn Idn Figure 3-4. 3 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator The VCO converts a continuous input voltage to a high-frequency signal.