By Chao-Jun Li
An intensive replace of the vintage reference on natural reactions in water released nearly a decade in the past, the 1st variation has served because the consultant for study during this burgeoning box. because of the price, safeguard, potency, and environmental friendliness of water as a solvent, there are various new functions in and educational laboratories. greater than 40 percentage of this commonly up-to-date moment version covers new reactions. For ease of reference, it's geared up through useful teams. A center reference, accomplished natural Reactions in Aqueous Media, moment version: * presents the main complete insurance of aqueous organicreactions to be had * Covers the elemental ideas and conception and progresses to functions * contains alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, electrophilic substitutions, carbonyls, alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyls, carbon-nitrogen bonds, natural halides, pericyclic reactions, photochemical reactions, click on chemistry, and multi-step syntheses? * offers examples of functions in undefined this is often the foremost reference for chemists and chemical engineers in or examine, in addition to for college kids in advanced-level classes.
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Additional resources for Comprehensive Organic Reactions in Aqueous Media
31 The major product is isopropanol. A biopolymer-metal complex, woolsupported palladium-iron complex (wool-Pd-Fe), has been found to be a highly active catalyst for the hydration of some alkenes to the corresponding alcohols. 4 Oxymercuration/Oxymetalation Oxymercuration/demercuration provides a milder alternative for the conventional acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes. 1 Simpliﬁed mechanism of an IPTC process mediated by cyclodextrins. catalysis, inverse phase transfer catalysis (IPTC) reactions—in which a lipophilic reactant is transported to the aqueous phase by the catalyst—are relatively rare.
Isotopic experiments with enriched 195 Pt complexes showed9 that the oxidation process involves an electron transfer to generate σ-alkylplatinum(IV) complex, which reacts with nucleophile H2 O to afford an alcohol ROH (Eq. 2). 10 The aqueous medium avoided the need for protection of functional groups (Eq. 3). 3) NH2 35% yield In addition to platinum-catalyzed oxidation of alkane C–H bonds, other oxidation systems have also been developed, some of which were performed under aqueous conditions. The most well known is the Gif system developed by Barton and co-workers11 for oxidation and oxidative functionalization of alkanes under mild conditions.
Gol’dshleger, N. , Tyabin, M. , Shilov, A. , Shteinman, A. , Zh. Fiz. Khim. 1969, 43, 2174 29. Klei, S. , Golden, J. , Tilley, T. , Bergman, R. , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2092. 1 Hydrogenation Because of the electron-richness of simple carbon–carbon double bonds, their reduction to C–C single bonds is usually difﬁcult with common electron-rich reducing reagents such as metal hydrides. On the other hand, the use of transition-metal can change the electronic nature of C=C into electron-demanding through coordination with the transition-metals.