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Download Control of quantum-mechanical processes and systems by A.G. Butkovskiy, Yu.I. Samoilenko PDF

By A.G. Butkovskiy, Yu.I. Samoilenko

'Et moi ..... si j'avait su remark en revenir, One carrier arithmetic has rendered the je n'y serais element aIle.' human race. It has positioned logic again Jules Verne the place it belongs. at the topmost shelf subsequent to the dusty canister labelled 'discarded non. The sequence is divergent; as a result we can be sense'. in a position to do anything with it. Eric T. Bell O. Heaviside arithmetic is a device for inspiration. A hugely priceless software in an international the place either suggestions and non linearities abound. equally, all types of elements of arithmetic function instruments for different components and for different sciences. utilising an easy rewriting rule to the quote at the correct above one unearths such statements as: 'One provider topology has rendered mathematical physics .. .'; 'One carrier good judgment has rendered com puter technology .. .'; 'One provider classification idea has rendered arithmetic .. .'. All arguably precise. And all statements accessible this manner shape a part of the raison d'etre of this sequence.

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Demzufolge gilt f¨ ur die Atommasse: mA (Z, N )c2 = Z(mp + me )c2 + N mn c2 − Δm(Z, N )c2 − EB (e− ) . Die Bindungsenergie der Elektronen EB (e− ) k¨onnen wir hier vernachl¨ assigen. 9300 Von der Summe der Massen der einzelnen Bestandteile des neutralen 12 C-Atoms haben wir die massenspektroskopisch bestimmte Bindungsenergie (Massendefekt · c2 ) abgezogen. 4941 MeV/c2 . Eine weitere Methode, Massen zu bestimmen, die sich vorwiegend f¨ ur solche Isotope eignet, die in Beschleunigern in Kernreaktionen erzeugt wurden, wird Schottky-Massenspektroskopie genannt.

46 ¨ 2. 7 Die Rutherford-Geiger-Marsdenschen Experimente werden mit 16 OPro-jektilen an 197 Au-Targets wiederholt. Bei einem Streuwinkel von 60◦ treten im Schwerpunktsystem infolge des Einsetzens der Kernkr¨afte Abweichungen vom Rutherford-Streuquerschnitt auf. Welche Anfangsenergie haben die 16 O-Projektile? 3 MeV (im Schwerpunktsystem) zufriedenstellend gut. Berechnen Sie daraus die Reichweite der Kernkr¨ afte, die oberhalb dieser Energie eine Abweichung bewirken. 9 Vergleichen Sie die Coulomb-Energie eines 2 vitationsenergie EG = 35 γG mR .

2) Die Differenz ΔmK der Masse des Kerns zur Summe der Massen aller Protonen und Neutronen, die den Kern bilden, nennen wir den Massendefekt. 48 3. Innere Eigenschaften von Atomkernen Aufgrund der Masse-Energie-Beziehung E = mc2 ist der Massendefekt multipliziert mit c2 gleich der Bindungsenergie. Demnach muß gelten, daß die Bindungsenergie bei der Bildung eines Kerns aus seinen Konstituenten freigesetzt wird, aber sie muß aufgewendet werden, wenn der Kern in seine Konstituenten – die Nukleonen – zerlegt werden soll.

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