By S. M. Micheal
This moment, revised and enlarged version appears again on the aspirations and fight of the marginalised Dalit lots and appears ahead to a brand new humanity in keeping with equality, social justice and human dignity. in the context of Dalit emancipation, it explores the social, fiscal and cultural content material of Dalit transformation in glossy India. those articles, by means of the various greatest researchers within the box, are provided in 4 components: half I bargains with the ancient fabric at the foundation and improvement of untouchability in Indian civilisation. half II contests mainstream reasons and indicates that the Dalit imaginative and prescient of Indian society isn't the same as that of the higher castes. half III bargains a critique of the Sanskritic standpoint of conventional Indian society, and fieldwork-based pictures of the Hinduisation of Adivasis in Gujarat, Dalit patriarchy in Maharashtra and Dalit strength politics in Uttar Pradesh. half IV concentrates at the financial situation of the Dalits.
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Extra info for Dalits in Modern India: Vision and Values, 2nd Edition
These descriptions allude to the racial admixture that took place in the early era. To avoid deformity, Yim married his sister Yimuk and thus preserved racial purity. From this myth it is quite clear that during the earliest era of settlement, the Aryans married indigenous women; but when the children born of such unions had dark complexions, snub noses and other non-Aryan features, such marriages UNTOUCHABILITY AND STRATIFICATION 59 were avoided. In ancient Iran, where the racial features of victorious Aryans and the subjugated people were not so different, ranks did not crystallise into endogamous groups, which is what happened in India (Indradeva, 1980).
Just as the feet are the lowest in the body, Shudras are the lowest in society. The Purushasukta appears to be the composition of an era when the Aryans had already settled down in the Indian subcontinent around 1200–1000 BC. The Vish or the commoners among Aryans required agricultural labour. They employed Dasas. Gradually the Dasas were given the generic name of Shudra. Both these words are of Iranian origin. The word Dasa is the transformed Iranian word Dahae or common man (Indradeva, 1980).
Such hymns indicate that the settlements of the Dasas were demolished more than once. 7). 7). The word Dasa is used for slaves even in the Rig Veda. In later times also Dasa has been the most common word for slave. PANIS: THE PRE-ARYAN CITY PEOPLE Another people mentioned in the Rig Veda are the Panis. Probably these were a commercial people and were later absorbed in the class of traders in the fourfold varna hierarchy. The Panis are often connected with the ancient Phoenicians. Phoenicia is the ancient name of the coastal part of Syria.