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A newborn is 21 inches in length and weighs 6 lb 9 oz. Describe the baby in metric units. 74 1-32 © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2003 Text How many significant figures are contained in each of the following numbers? a. 0 d. 062 b. 214 e. 50 c. 120 f. 1050 How many significant figures are contained in each of the following numbers? d. 24 a. 8 ϫ 10Ϫ3 e. 240 b. 20 ϫ 102 c. 00261 f. 40 Round the following numbers to three significant figures: d. 3387 a. 873 ϫ 10Ϫ3 e. 1 b. 202 ϫ 10Ϫ2 c. 002616 f. 407 Round the following numbers to three significant figures: a.

2 demonstrates the calculation of the atomic mass of chlorine. 23% of chlorine atoms are 17 Cl (chlorine-37). Solution Step 1. Convert each percentage to a decimal fraction. 2423 chlorine-37 100% Step 2. Multiply the decimal fraction of each isotope by the mass of that isotope to determine the isotopic contribution to the average atomic mass. 965 amu Continued— 2-6 Denniston: General, Organic and Biochemistry, Fourth Edition 2. 2 —Continued Step 3. 45 amu. An even more exact value would be obtained by using a more exact value of the mass of the proton and neutron (experimentally known to a greater number of significant figures).

Atoms of various types differ in their number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The number of protons determines the identity of the atom. As such, the number of protons is characteristic of the element. When the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, the atom is neutral because the charges are balanced and effectively cancel one another. Mass number Charge of particle A C Z Atomic number X Symbol of the atom We may represent an element symbolically as follows: Learning Goal 3 The atomic number (Z) is equal to the number of protons in the atom, and the mass number (A) is equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons (the mass of the electrons is so small as to be insignificant in comparison to that of the nucleus).

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