By Milan J. Schwuger
Bargains insurance of the environmental behaviour of detergent ingredients, concentrating on physiochemical interactions with soil and sediments. this article offers the present nation of data on lately brought detergent ingredients, together with zeolites, polycarboxylate compounds, ethylene dinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).
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Rubingh and Paul M. Holland 38. Kinetics and Catalysis in Microheterogeneous Systems, edited by M. Grätzel and K. Kalyanasundaram 39. Interfacial Phenomena in Biological Systems, edited by Max Bender 40. Analysis of Surfactants, Thomas M. Schmitt 41. Light Scattering by Liquid Surfaces and Complementary Techniques, edited by Dominique Langevin 42. Polymeric Surfactants, Irja Piirma 43. Anionic Surfactants: Biochemistry, Toxicology, Dermatology. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Christian Gloxhuber and Klaus Künstler 44.
According to thorough investigations by Noll, conducted in 1991, the consumption of surfactants in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was of the order of about 383,000 ton active material: Anionics211,000 t/a=55%Nonionics150,000 t/a=39%Cationics15,000 t/a=4%Amphoterics7,000 t/a=22%383,000 t/a=100% From these, consumption volumes for use in detergent and cleaning products according to the German Detergent Law (WRMG) were as follows: Anionics211,000 t/a®131,000 t=62%Nonionics150,000 t/a®61,000 t=41%Cationics15,000 t/a®4,000 t=57%383,000 t/a®206,000 t=54% From the consumption of surfactants that were not used in products belonging to the WRMG, that is, 383,000 - 206,000 = 177,000 t/a, were the following: Page 13 83,000 t/anot relevant for surface waters31,000 t/arelevant for surface waters but not regulated by the WRMG83,000 t/arelevant for surface waters, difference between export and import of preparations containing surfactants Summing the total consumption under the category of relevance to surface waters or not, the distribution results were as follows: Not water relevant83,000 t/a=22%Water relevant63,000 t/a=16% Export-import Not WRMG relevant 31,000 t/a=8% WRMG relevant 206,000 t/a=54%383,000 t/a=100% Glues, colors, varnishes, plastics, and construction materials are examples of application areas of surfactants not relevant to surface water.
11 Development of waste water treatment in municipal sewage treatment plants in Germany. D Effect: Conversion Plus Construction of Sewage Treatment Plants (19641979) Figure 11 shows the situation of waste water treatment in 1964 with about 20% biological sewage treatment plants for municipal waste water. In line with the conversion to biodegradable surfactants, the construction of biological sewage treatment plants started. Until the end of 1979, about 65% of the population was connected with biological sewage treatment plants.