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Download Drugs and Contemporary Warfare by Paul Rexton Kan PDF

By Paul Rexton Kan

The dating among medications and today’s wars has grown extra obvious because the finish of the chilly struggle and may most likely assemble power during this period of elevated globalization. Many violent teams and governments have lately grew to become to illicit narcotics of their entrepreneurial quests to stick achievable within the post–Cold conflict international. it's no accident that some of the so much violent and ongoing conflicts, from the Balkans to the Hindu Kush, from the Andes to the Golden Triangle, ensue in components of frequent drug construction and well-traveled distribution routes. Interdisciplinary in its strategy, Drugs and modern Warfare investigates the convergence of substances and smooth battle, the violent actors considering the drug exchange, the medicine they produce and distribute, and the way those medicinal drugs input into battlefield conflicts and provides upward push to strive against narcosis. Paul Rexton Kan then examines counternarcotics operations and indicates strategies to diminish the drug trade’s results on modern clash. He bargains a number of wide concepts that refine exams, guidelines, and operations to advertise development in social, fiscal, and political stipulations. The desire is that those suggestions can help electorate create sustainable societies and strong governments in war-afflicted international locations suffering lower than the drug trade’s shadow. In a global looking for peace, the reply would possibly not completely be at the battlefield but in addition at the entrance line opposed to unlawful narcotics. With a foreword by way of Moisés Naím, editor in leader of Foreign Policy journal and the writer of Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats Are Hijacking the worldwide Economy.

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Sample text

Additionally, in combination with the balloon effect, the hydra-effect is at work in the cocaine trade as well. Although the United States has the largest market for cocaine, Europe’s demand for cocaine is rising. As a result, the trafficking routes have expanded to countries in West Africa, including Cape Verde, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, and Liberia, that have shaky DRUGGING THE BATTLEFIELD 33 governance structures. They are being used as transshipment points, for there is a ready reservoir of people willing to earn money from the drug trade.

Many of these areas lie in countries of conflict, such as Myanmar, Colombia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, or border these countries such as Laos, Thailand, and Tajikistan. Heroin is processed from morphine, which is a naturally occurring substance extracted from seedpods of poppy plants. 34 At this stage of production, rurally based violent groups who operate near these plantations have “taxed” the farmers for protection. Combatants have also made up for any shortages in labor necessary to extract the gum.

A warring group does not require a monopoly over all aspects of a particular narcotic; it merely needs to participate in one of the nodes or a linkage between nodes that make up a drug-trafficking network. As law enforcement succeeded in breaking down drug cartels and organized criminal syndicates, drug trafficking evolved from hierarchical organizations based on kinship, ethnicity, common experience, and tradition to networked enterprises with a flattened lateral structure based on ad hoc arrangements with other groups.

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