By Takeru Akazawa, Yoshihiro Nishiaki, Kenichi Aoki
This quantity offers the 1st of 2 court cases from the overseas convention at the alternative of Neanderthals by way of glossy people, which happened in Tokyo in November 2012. Focussing on a hugely leading edge operating speculation referred to as the ‘learning hypothesis’, which makes an attempt to provide an explanation for the alternative because of adjustments within the studying talents of those hominid populations, the convention served because the most up-to-date multidisciplinary dialogue discussion board in this interesting Palaeoanthropological factor. the current quantity stories on results of the convention in 3 significant sections. half 1 offers an archaeological assessment of the strategies of replacement/assimilation of Neanderthals by means of sleek people. half 2 comprises archaeological and ethnographic case reports exploring proof of studying behaviours in prehistoric and smooth hunter-gatherer societies. half three offers a set of papers that at once contributes to the definition, validation and checking out of the educational speculation when it comes to inhabitants biology and evolutionary thought. a complete of 18 papers during this quantity make on hand to readers distinctive cultural views on mechanisms of the replacement/assimilation of Neanderthals through glossy people and steered relationships among those mechanisms and assorted studying strategies.
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Extra resources for Dynamics of Learning in Neanderthals and Modern Humans Volume 1: Cultural Perspectives
Based on the stratigraphic configurations observed at the time of excavation, and bearing in mind that the relevant levels (EJOPsup and EJOsup) are separated by the >10 cm-thick sterile level EJOinf, a Protoaurignacian connection is, however, unlikely, and this for two reasons. Firstly, if a pit had been excavated from EJOsup deep into EJOP, then it should have left a readily apparent scar in EJOinf, but none was observed. Secondly, such a pit would 26 J. Zilhão in that case post-date the formation of both EJOinf and EJOPsup and, therefore, the partial exposure of the skeleton at the surface of EJOPsup could no longer be related to the latter’s clearly erosional upper boundary.
1 Grotta del Cavallo The Uluzzian deposits excavated in the early 1960s at Grotta del Cavallo, in southern Italy, yielded two deciduous left upper molars: Cavallo-B, a dM1 from spit EIII of level E, at the base of the Uluzzian sequence, and Cavallo-C, a dM2 from immediately overlying spit EI-II. Churchill and Smith (2000), as others before them, had considered these teeth to be of Neandertal affinities, but Benazzi et al. (2011) assigned them to modern humans on the basis of a morphometric comparison employing a combination of two methods: the analysis of two-dimensional enamel thickness and of dental tissue proportions; and the analysis of the outlines of dental crown (for the Cavallo-B dM1) and cervix (for the Cavallo-C dM2).
Despite the large size of the comparative sample, it turned out that, if found loose, the Oase 1 mandibular teeth would have been classified as modern and the Oase 2 maxillary ones as Neandertal. Bailey et al. fell short of deriving the conclusion, but this outcome highlights the inappropriateness, with respect to the fossils of the contact period, of a framework where classical Neandertals are dichotomically contrasted with extant people or late Upper Paleolithic modern humans. Bailey et al. 's (2010) study of the dentition of the Lagar Velho child, dated to ~30 ka cal BP.