By James H. Harlow
Overlaying the basic thought of electrical energy transformers, this e-book presents the historical past required to appreciate the fundamental operation of electromagnetic induction as utilized to transformers. The e-book is split into 3 basic groupings: one stand-alone bankruptcy is dedicated to conception and ideas, 9 chapters separately deal with significant transformer varieties, and fourteen chapters disguise many ancillary subject matters linked to strength transformers. in the course of the ebook, tables, charts, photos, and equations describe the operation and function of strength transformers and facilitate the reader's realizing of the technical fabric.
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Transformer Design Considerations for Generator Auxiliary and Station Auxiliary Transformers, presented at 1976 Electric Utility Engineering Conference, 1976. 2 Distribution Transformers Dudley L. 1 Long-Distance Power In 1886, George Westinghouse built the ﬁrst long-distance alternating-current electric lighting system in Great Barrington, MA. The power source was a 25-hp steam engine driving an alternator with an output of 500 V and 12 A. In the middle of town, 4000 ft away, transformers were used to reduce the voltage to serve light bulbs located in nearby stores and ofﬁces (Powel, 1997).
The secondary voltage for permanently sealed transformers with three bushings is 240/120 V or 480/240 V. 3 Four Secondary Bushings Secondaries with four bushings can be connected together external to the transformer to create a midtap connection with one bushing in common, or a two-bushing connection where the internal coil sections are paralleled. The four-bushing secondary will be designated as 120/240 or 240/480 V, indicating © 2004 by CRC Press LLC that a full kVA load can be served at the lower voltage.
Low-voltage strip can be bare with paper insulation between layers. The use of paper wrapping on strap conductor is slowly being replaced by synthetic polymer coatings or wrapping with synthetic cloth. For special applications, synthetic paper such as DuPont’s Nomex®1 can be used in place of kraft paper to permit higher continuous operating temperatures within the transformer coils. 1 Thermally Upgraded Paper In 1958, manufacturers introduced insulating paper that was chemically treated to resist breakdown due to thermal aging.