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**Extra resources for Electronics for Hobbyists (Unit 3. Active Devices)**

**Sample text**

2. Presentation of training samples. Present the network with an epoch of training examples. For each example in the sample, perform the forward and backward computations, as described in steps 3 and 4. 3. Forward computation. For a training example denoted by x k; d k, compute the induced local ﬁelds and function signals of the network by proceeding h forward through the network, layer-by-layer. 40) i0 where y i h 1 k is the output signal of neuron i at iteration k, and w jih k is the synaptic weight of neuron j in layer h that is fed from neuron i in layer h 1.

Besides, in a statistical context, batch learning may be viewed as a form of statistical inference. Therefore, it is well suited for solving nonlinear regression problems. 2 Online Learning In online learning, adjustments to the synaptic weights of the multilayer perceptron are performed on the example-by-example basis. Thus, the cost function to be minimized is the total instantaneous error energy E k. Consider an epoch of K training examples arranged in the order fx 1; d 1g, fx 2; d 2g, .

1 describes two classes of patterns in the two-dimensional plane. 18. 1 Pattern Classiﬁcation x1 x2 d Class 2 1 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 @1 @2 @1 @2 2 1 Now, we describe the iterative process of the training algorithm as follows, with the purpose of classifying the patterns: 1. Set w 0 0. 2. Compute y 0 ϕ 0 0 0 1 2 2 T ϕ 0 1 Since the actual response is not equal to the desired response, we update the weight and bias as w 1 0 0 T 0 0 1 1 2 2 T 1 2 2 T 3. Compute y 1 ϕ 1 2 2 1 1 2 T ϕ 1 1 The actual response is equal to the desired response, so we do not need to update the weight and bias.