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Download Elementary Principles of Philosophy by Georges Politzer PDF

By Georges Politzer

Georges Politzer used to be born in Nagyvarad, Hungary (currently Oradea, Romania) on may perhaps three, 1903. He left his place of birth after the defeat of Bela Kun’s abortive Soviet Republic, settling in France in 1921. during his travels he had met Freud and Sandor Ferenczi in Vienna, and his curiosity in psychology was once to bring about the ebook in 1928 of his “Critique des fondements de l. a. psychologie” (Critique of the principles of Psychology). This paintings used to be the 1st define of a materialist idea of social psychology, and was once one of many affects on Vygotsky within the Twenties. In France he taught within the towns of Moulins, Evreux and at Saint-Maur, all of the whereas energetic within the academics’ union. someday among 1929-31 (Party resources point out his being accredited on his moment try at becoming a member of) he joined the French Communist occasion, the place he was once answerable for the industrial fee of the imperative Committee. He taught at either the employees’ collage and the PCF’s important university, and was once one of the founding workforce of the revue l. a. Pensée. In September 1940, with France occupied, he entered the struggle opposed to the Nazis and introduced clandestine journals: L’Université Libre and los angeles Pensée Libre, which he wrote for less than the pen identify Rameau. It was once for the latter that he wrote his recognized assault on Alfred Rosenberg: “L’Obscurantisme au XXe siecle” (Obscurantism within the twentieth Century) together with his spouse Mai, additionally a Communist and Resistance fighter, he was once arrested in February 1942 for violation of the legislation banning the Communist celebration. whereas imprisoned at Santé legal in Paris he was once in a mobile subsequent to that of the distinguished Communist and Resistance member Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier. In her testimony on the Nuremberg battle Crimes trial Vaillant-Couturier noted Politzer’s legal adventure: “Georges Politzer advised me that in his interrogation, after having crushed him, he used to be requested if he didn’t are looking to write theoretical pamphlets for National-Socialism. whilst he refused they instructed him he will be wear the 1st teach of hostages to be executed.” On March 20, 1942 he used to be became over to the Nazis and, as threatened, he was once accomplished with a gaggle of hostages on may possibly 23,1942. His spouse was once transported to Auschwitz, the place she died in March 1943. His 1935-36 classes on the Worker’s collage have been posthumously released as Principes élémentaires de philosophie (Elementary ideas of Philosophy). Politzer can also be remembered for having prefigured the large Bang thought of the Universe.

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To recognize the existence of the bus. For him, practically speaking, there is no difference between an objective bus and a subjective bus. This is so true that practice easily proves that, in life, idealists are materialists. We could cite many examples on this subject, where we would see that WHO IS RIGHT: THE IDEALIST OR THE MATERIALIST? 29 idealist philosophers and those who support this philosophy do not dis­ dain a certain “objective lowness" in order to obtain what is, for them, only a subjective reality.

The idealists and materialists who argue to find out which one is right wear blue and red 34 Part One : Philosophical Problems glasses. Never will they know reality. ” Such is the reasoning of agnostics. 3. Where does this philosophy come from? The founders of this philosophy are Hume (1711-1776), who was Scot­ tish, and Kant (1724-1804), a German. Both tried to reconcile idealism and materialism. Here is a passage of Hume’s arguments quoted by Lenin in his book Materialism and Empirio-Criticism: It seems evident, that men are carried, by a natural instinct or prepos­ session, to repose faith in their senses; and that, without any reason­ ing, or even almost before the use of reason, we always suppose an external universe, which depends not on our perception, but would exist though we and every sensible creature were absent or annihi­ lated.

The arguments are much more subtle and covert. (Consult, for an example of the way in which idealists argue, the chapter entitled “The Discovery of the World-Elements" in Lenin’s book, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, p. ) Hence, it is, to borrow Lenin’s words, “ the criterion of practice” which will allow us to confound idealists. The latter, moreover, will not fail to point out that theory and practice are not the same, that they are two completely different things. This is not true. It is practice alone, through experience, which will show us whether a concept is right or wrong.

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