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Download Encyclopedia of the Solar System / Энциклопедия Солнечной by Lucy-Ann McFadden, Paul Weissman, Torrence Johnson PDF

By Lucy-Ann McFadden, Paul Weissman, Torrence Johnson

Иллюстрированная энциклопедия Солнечной системы.
Огромное количество разнообразных иллюстраций и фото планет и астеройдов, сделанных с Земли и с космических аппаратов.

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of the Solar System / Энциклопедия Солнечной Системы

Example text

However, we may have cometary meteorites in our sample collections and simply not yet be knowledgeable enough to recognize them. Recovered meteorites are roughly equally split between silicate and carbonaceous types, with a few percent being iron–nickel meteorites. , the meteorites which appear to show the least processing in the solar nebula) are the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites. , processing in the presence of liquid water). Study of carbonaceous and ordinary (silicate) chondrites provides significant information on the composition of the original solar nebula, on the physical and chemical processes operating in the solar nebula, and on the chronology of the early solar system.

Pluto and its largest satellite Charon are shown in Fig. 4. Pluto bears a strong resemblance to Triton, Neptune’s large icy satellite (which is slightly larger than Pluto) and to other large icy planetesimals in the Kuiper belt beyond the orbit of Neptune. Pluto has a thin, extended atmosphere, probably methane and nitrogen, which is slowly escaping because of Pluto’s low gravity. This puts it in a somewhat intermediate state between a freely outflowing cometary coma and a bound atmosphere. Spectroscopic evidence shows that methane frost covers much of the surface of Pluto, whereas its largest satellite Charon appears to be covered with water frost.

For bodies without a magnetic field, such as Venus and the Moon, the solar wind impinges directly on the top of the atmosphere or on the solid surface, respectively. For bodies like the Earth or Jupiter, which do have magnetic fields, the field acts as a barrier and deflects the solar wind around it. Because the solar wind is expanding at supersonic speeds, a shock wave, or bow shock, develops at the interface between the interplanetary solar wind and the planetary magnetosphere or ionosphere. The planetary magnetospheres can be quite large, extending out ∼12 planetary radii upstream (sunward) of the Earth, and 50–100 radii from Jupiter.

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