By Robin M. Leichenko, Karen L. O'Brien
This publication explores the connections among of the main transformative tactics of the twenty-first century, particularly weather swap and globalization. during this e-book, Leichenko and O'Brien current a conceptual framework for studying the interactions among those methods, and illustrate, via case reviews, how those interactions create occasions of "double exposure."Drawing upon sought after fresh and present climate-related events--Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, routine droughts in India, and the melting of Arctic sea ice--the case reviews each one reveal a distinct pathway of interplay among globalization and international environmental swap. via exploration of those pathways of double publicity, the publication additionally indicates how broader human safeguard issues together with turning out to be inequalities, turning out to be vulnerabilities, and unsustainable premiums of improvement are integrally attached to either techniques of worldwide swap. The double publicity framework not just sheds gentle at the demanding situations raised via those international techniques, but in addition unearths percentages for utilizing the interactions to generate confident possibilities for motion.
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Extra resources for Environmental change and globalization: double exposures
Processes may alter the contextual environment, responses may affect the processes, outcomes may affect responses, and so forth. 1 in two ways: 1. The oval surrounding the exposure unit may change shape, signifying a direct transformation of the context as the result of either or both processes of global change. Examples of contextual transformations associated with global change processes include changes in biophysical conditions, such as melting of permafrost in the Arctic as the result of climate change, and changes in institutional supports as the result of new international agricultural trade agreements.
Importantly, the dominance of one discourse over another inﬂuences both the types of outcomes that are likely to be prioritized and the methods by which those outcomes are likely to be pursued. A key point is that different outcomes and different outcome metrics may be justiﬁed or legitimated by different discourses. Often there are strong interests associated with certain outcomes, which may be backed by considerable economic, political, and cultural power (see Conca and Dabelko 2004). In the double exposure framework presented below, we will emphasize those outcomes that are consistent with human security, including those that promote equity, resilience, and sustainability.
Exposure Exposure is the condition of being subjected to some effect or inﬂuence resulting from a process of global change. These effects may include increased temperatures, changes in exposure to ultraviolet radiation, access to external markets, and loss of state support for education. Exposure can be assessed or analyzed within a speciﬁc exposure frame, which is deﬁned relative to the focus of the study. , an area such as the greater Double Exposure: A Conceptual Framework New York-New Jersey metropolitan region, the Amazon rainforest, the Indus River basin, or the Arctic).