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Download Environmental Policy Between Regulation and Market by Claude Jeanrenaud (auth.), Prof.Dr. Claude Jeanrenaud (eds.) PDF

By Claude Jeanrenaud (auth.), Prof.Dr. Claude Jeanrenaud (eds.)

Environmental rules have routinely depended on direct controls and on govt funding to guard average assets. at the present time, the drawbacks and impediments to this technique are obvious: heavy burdens borne by means of businesses and the neighborhood, complicated rules, a probability of legislative inflation, problems in assembly the objectives set, to call a couple of. In reaction, the environmental specialists in lots of nations have began to think again the efficacy in their courses, with the end result that industry incentives and voluntary agreements with businesses or branches of were extra to the arsenal of conventional environmental safety measures. There are nice expectancies for brand spanking new fiscal tools, which supply the twofold good thing about giving businesses extra freedom within the collection of capacity, and of accelerating the possibilities for assembly pursuits in a less costly manner. The authors of this ebook examine those tools - eco-friendly taxes, tradeable allows, covenants, joint implementation, the world over tradeable quotas - from the viewpoint of costeffectiveness, their skill to accomplish environmental targets, and public and company acceptability. They endeavour to figure out at the foundation of expertise to this point, even if those tools reside as much as the hopes put in them.

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Majocchi The White Paper on fiscal reform In Italy, the White Paper on fiscal reform4 was presented by the Minister of Finance in December 1994. A few days later, the Italian government resigned. As a matter of fact, there has been no official discussion of this document within Parliament. In any case, it still seems useful to examine its content since the White Paper represents the culmination of a lengthy political and cultural debate and is considered an effective basis for a fruitful discussion about the future of the Italian fiscal system5 -- even if the structure of the proposed reforms is sometimes controversial.

Two MIT researchers (Ellerman and Montero, 1996) note that the equilibrium price does not say anything about the functioning of the market other than a low price provides a strong support for the market-revealing properties of the system. The low price levels observed at present are said to be due to an external cause: the fact that electricity producers can procure low-sulphur fuel following a drop in transport costs. 6. Acceptability Alongside ecological effectiveness (the guarantee that the goals will be met) and economic efficiency (minimization of abatement costs), acceptability is the third major criterion in the choice of instruments.

Sector Type of tax Objective Basis Collector Water Waste water tax Partial financing collection and treatment Volume and quality of water Local water company User Tax on release of polluted water in the environment Partial compensation of damage Volume and quality of water Local water company Polluting enterprise Municipal solid waste tax Partial financing collection and treatment Area of housing Commune User Plastic bag fee c (L 100 per bag) Reducing consumption of plastic bags Number of units on the national market State (L 55 bn in 1990) Producer Importer Plastic containers and packagings for liquid charge Financing recycling Primary material produced or imported National consortium Producer Importer Oil Lubricating oil charge (L 5/1) Financing collection and recycling Oil sale Consortium for used oil Enterprises Batteries Lead battery charge Financing collection and recycling Battery sale Consortium for lead battery and lead waste Producer Importer Unleaded gasoline b Tax reduction Promoting use of unleaded gasoline Gasoline sale State Benefit to the consumer Aircraft Noise tax Noise State Airline CFCd Deposit/refund CFC volume Consortium for CFCs Buyer of equipment Wastea Promoting CFCs collection and recycling or disposal a) Waste exports to non-DECO countries can only take place after a deposit is made.

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