By Alexander Döring Dipl. Eng. (auth.), Wolfgang Spyra, Michael Katzsch (eds.)
Although the top of the chilly warfare has prepared the ground to a considerable demilitarisation and conversion, the leftovers of this method – similar to former army installations, army education components, and enormous amounts of unserviceable ammunition and gear – nonetheless pose a critical possibility to the surroundings of either NATO and accomplice countries.
The rehabilitation of those parts for civilian makes use of is very high priced and is mostly within the brief and medium time period impossible. accordingly, the improvement of recent equipment for the estimation avoidance of dangers should still obtain precise precedence. within the context of this ARW, the reconnaissance and appraisal of conversion parts with admire to bills, returns, and criminal concerns have been mentioned. The decades-long use of a few parts resulted in the heavy loading of contaminates. each job of conversion has as its objective the removal of hazards to people and nature, and the go back of parts to civil use, such that those components can be utilized appreciate financial pursuits of the society.
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Additional info for Environmental Security and Public Safety: Problems and Needs in Conversion Policy and Research after 15 Years of Conversion in Central and Eastern Europe
The conclusion is that even the maintenance of military readiness and training can be quite harmful, if not disastrous. 2. Conversion and Safety Issues in Finland Considering the safety issues in Finland, the enormous cleaning work after World War II cannot be forgotten. Particularly the vast area of Lapland was a stage for thousands of detonation accidents, faced both by the de-mining personnel and civilian residents returning home from the evacuation regions. Although lethal casualties have not been recently reported, mines and other explosives remain to be found even today.
From this date onwards, environmental thinking became familiar to the military sector. The Defence Forces have had two importants milestones in the area of the environmental protection: oﬃcers first became responsible for environmental protection in 1999 when in the Defence Forces Internal regulation first briefly mentioned environmental protection, and in 2001 when the Estonian Defence Forces Environmental Policy Act for Defence Forces was established. The past fifteen years have seen significant progress, as the level of environmental thinking in the defence forces has increased from a negligible to an appreciable level.
Even if no party had any clear expectations of the continuation of military use, the local headquarters remained at the site. The closure of a military hospital faced significant resistance, but this was not related to safety issues. In contrast, the suburban part of the garrison became a typical example of our topic. Most problematic has been the shooting range for heavy guns. The range uses tens of hectares in a place which could be used for civilian housing, but has instead remained an obstacle for planning of the range to the present day, causing disputes between the city and the Ministry of Defence.