By David G. Shaw, Mohammad J. Hameedi
Port Valdez, a fjord inside of Prince William Sound, Alaska, is the location of a big facility the place petroleum from the trans-Alaska pipeline is transferred to giant tankers. As such, Port Valdez provided a special chance for a case examine at the skill of current know-how to become aware of major surroundings alterations in a pristine oceanographic surroundings that was once being subjected to a identified point of disturbance, hence the release of hydrocarbons. This quantity offers an built-in overview and research of a fifteen yr research on Port Valdez, protecting such issues as - neighborhood water flow and meteorology - sediments and hint parts - plankton - fisheries assets - intertidal biology - subtidal benthos - regulatory pursuits. This quantity can be of specific curiosity to marine biologists, oceanographers, ecologists, environmental managers and others facing the examine and legislation of pollutants in coastal environments.
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Extra resources for Environmental studies in Port Valdez, Alaska : a basis for management
J . Niebaue r an d D . L . Neber t Institut e o f Marin e Scienc e Universit y o f Alask a Fairbanks , Alask a 99775-108 0 Potentia l biologica l impac t i s th e chie f concer n tha t arise s ove r th e discharg e o f contaminant s int o a wate r body . Interes t i s usuall y focuse d o n (1 ) th e leve l o f contaminan t concentratio n t o whic h organ ism s ar e exposed , (2 ) th e duratio n o f tha t exposure , an d (3 ) th e population s tha t ar e affected . Thes e factor s ar e governed , t o a larg e extent , b y physica l processe s tha t dilut e th e effluent , transpor t i t away fro m th e poin t o f discharge , an d ultimatel y ri d th e wate r bod y o f th e contaminant .
T s r d f 46 Figur e 2 . 1980 . e. , near-field ) dilutio n phase , i t i s essentiall y a neutrall y buoyan t objec t tha t respond s passivel y t o movement s o f th e receivin g water . Al l subsequen t dilutio n i s achieve d throug h advectiv e diffusio n processe s tha t ar e characteristi c o f th e bul k wate r movements . A Fickia n typ e o f diffusio n i s conventionall y assume d fo r thes e processes ; tha t is , edd y diffusio n coefficient s ar e use d t o character iz e th e processes .
Considerabl e contro l ove r near-fiel d dilutio n ca n b e exercise d throug h appropriat e desig n an d operatio n o f th e effluen t discharg e system ; however , ther e ar e practica l limitation s t o th e amoun t o f near-fiel d dilutio n tha t ca n b e achieve d i n mos t receivin g wate r situations . Excep t fo r climati c influences , near-fiel d processe s ar e no t sit e specific ; tha t is , the y Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarin e Studies, Vol. 24 D . G. J. ), Environmenta l Studies in Port Valdez, Alaska 9 Springer-Verla g Berlin Heidelberg 1988 Copyright American Geophysical Union.