By V. C. Rao, J. L. Melnick (auth.)
We have tried to supply a concise and recent account of human viruses within the setting with awareness to uncomplicated instruments now to be had for tracking viruses. now we have aimed this introductory quantity at younger scholars, academics and investigators in microbiology, virology, environmental engineering and healthiness sciences. because the routes for virus dissemination develop into extra different, there's an stronger power for inflicting an infection in people. development within the improvement of keep watch over suggestions will alleviate the significance of viral pollutants of our environment. This quantity will introduce the reader to a space of technology which of necessity needs to make the most of various disciplines. V.CHALAPATIRAO JOSEPH L. MELNICK v We humbly devote this quantity to the adored reminiscence of our mom and dad Contents Preface v 1 advent 1 References nine 2 Human enteric viruses in polluted water 10 Enteroviruses 10 Hepatitis a pandemic eleven Non-A, non-B hepatitis 12 Norwalk and Norwalk-like brokers 12 Rotaviruses thirteen Adenoviruses thirteen Parvoviruses 14 Enteric viruses within the etiology of water-borne illness 14 precis sixteen References sixteen three tracking for viruses in wastewater and water 18 Why water will be monitored for viral infection 18 equipment for tracking viral infection 19 Virus isolation from sewage, and floor and consuming water 25 signs for viruses 30 criteria for viruses in consuming water 32 destiny advancements in virus detection 33 precis 38 References 39 four Virus removing by means of remedy methods forty-one complicated waste remedy (tertiary remedy) forty six Disinfection forty nine precis fifty four References 54
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L. (1955). Plaque formation with poliomyelitis, coxsackie and orphan (echo) viruses in bottle cultures of monkey epithelial cells. Virology 1: 533-5. LEMON, S. , BINN, L. N. AND MARCHWIKI, R. H. (1983). Radioimmunofocus assay for quantitation of hepatitis A virus in cell cultures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 17: 834-9. LIM, K. A. AND BENYESH-MELNICK, M. (1960). Typing of viruses by combinations of antiserum pools. Application to typing of enteroviruses (coxsackie and echo). Journal of Immunology 84: 309-17.
AND SANCHEZ, Y. (1982). Viruses in a small community water supply associated with a gastroenteritis epidemic. Journal of the American Water Works Association 74: 318-21. HILL, W. , JR, AKIN, E. W. AND BENTON, W. H. (1971). Detection of viruses in water: a review of methods and applications. Water Research 5: 967-95. HSIUNG, G. D. AND MELNICK, J. L. (1955). Plaque formation with poliomyelitis, coxsackie and orphan (echo) viruses in bottle cultures of monkey epithelial cells. Virology 1: 533-5. LEMON, S.
Viruses continue to be isolated from many surface waters used as drinking water sources as well as treated drinking waters. Emphasis is being placed on the evaluation of current methods for waters of different qualities. By means of round-robin programs, uniformity will hopefully be achieved in assaying and identifying viruses recovered from water so that standards can be set. The current isolation rate of viruses in drinking water appears to be low, and the numbers reported are believed to constitute a small portion of the total number of viruses actually present.