By Bachir Taouli
Non-stop development in MRI know-how in recent times has ended in the appliance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in organ platforms outdoor the mind. Extra-Cranial purposes of Diffusion-Weighted MRI presents an intensive assessment of present and destiny purposes of this imaging modality by means of world-renowned specialists. equipped through organ procedure, each one bankruptcy is extremely illustrated, supplying a stability of protocols, illustrations and rules of picture interpretation. An preliminary bankruptcy offers an outline of correct physics and different technical info, through specific chapters on all significant physique platforms together with liver, kidney, prostate, breast and backbone. a last bankruptcy discusses overview of remedy reaction. Written and edited by means of prime DW-MRI specialists all over the world, Extra-Cranial purposes of Diffusion-Weighted MRI is a useful source for radiology trainees, training radiologists and for researchers in a large choice of disciplines.
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Extra resources for Extra-Cranial Applications of Diffusion-Weighted MRI
Echo-planar imaging of diffusion and perfusion. Magn Reson Med 1991;19 (2):247–53. 4. Turner R, Le Bihan D, Maier J, et al. Echo-planar imaging of intravoxel incoherent motion. Radiology 1990;177 (2):407–14. 5. Braithwaite AC, Dale BM, Boll DT, Merkle EM. 0-T diffusionweighted imaging of the abdomen. Radiology 2009; 250 (2):459–65. 6. van den Bos IC, Hussain SM, Krestin GP, Wielopolski PA. 0 T: diffusion-induced black-blood echo-planar imaging with large anatomic volumetric coverage as an alternative for specific absorption rate-intensive echo-train spin-echo sequences: feasibility study.
B EPI factor: number of k-space lines collected per excitation. c Three directions are generally used for liver imaging, although more directions could be used (DTI)[51,61–67]. d Trace is the average image from three directions. [Reproduced with permission from Taouli B, Koh DM. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the liver. ] currents, chemical shift, Nyquist ghosting, susceptibility effects, and the noise amplification from acceleration techniques. Image display and processing 20 Trace diffusion images (average images between the images obtained with the three diffusion gradient directions) are displayed for each b-value acquired, together with an ADC map.
However, the implementation of respiratory triggering increases the acquisition time (approximately 5 to 6 min), as the images are only acquired in part of the respiratory cycle. The longer acquisition time can increase the chance of patient movement in the scanner. Last but not least, there is a risk of pseudo-anisotropy artifact using respiratory triggering, which induces errors in the ADC calculation, especially in non-cirrhotic livers. Interestingly, it has been found that there was no significant difference in the mean ADC values obtained using free-breathing or respiratory triggered acquisition schemes, although there was less scattering of ADC values associated with respiratory triggering schemes.