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Download Faith and Magic in Early Modern Finland by Raisa Maria Toivo PDF

By Raisa Maria Toivo

While early sleek Finland used to be Lutheran in concept, a spiritual plurality – embodied in ceremonies and rituals and interpreted as magic – flourished. Unorthodox and superstitious practices merged with catechism hearings and sermon preaching one of the laity. This booklet info how western and jap affects manifested themselves in Finnish magic.

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Chapter 2, the first main chapter, begins with an assessment of the policies of the church in Finland as a part of Sweden’s aspiration to Protestant leadership in Europe. From the institutional level, the chapter moves on to look at the consequences of those policies on folk teaching and sermons, which both attacked superstition and created new non-orthodox customs and superstitions. Here historiographical discussion on ‘confessionalization’ (Reinhard, Schilling) and ‘confessional culture’ (Kauffman) is used and critiqued from the perspective of cultural history.

These influences have most often been understood as the survival of medieval Catholic or even pre-Christian traditions in the way originally explored by J. Bossy and J. Delumeau: Catholic influences were therefore both a sign of the slow progress of Christianization and the Reformation, and a set of incoherent, fragmentary, and therefore unimportant pieces of an already lost tradition. This interpretation is reassessed in this chapter. The chapter connects the fragments of ‘popular religion’ to provide evidence of definite Counter-Reformation efforts in Finland by Jesuit missionaries and the Catholic-minded King John III.

Charles treated the arrested clergy as if they had already been dismissed from office, and suggested a new clergy instead. The Diet of Linköping acquitted the clergymen, Sorolainen included, but they were condemned at the Convention of Uppsala and had had to recant and apologize. In addition Sorolainen had to pay a fine of 1000 thalers for his previous actions. Sorolainen had also been among those who opposed Calvinist influences, for which Duke (and later King) Charles was pressing. Here he agreed with most of the Swedish clergy, but the very success of the clergy placed him and other public speakers in political disfavour.

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