By Ruediger Paschotta
Fiber optics became one of many crucial components of recent optical know-how. Early paintings has in most cases serious about the transmission of sunshine over lengthy distances, fairly to be used in optical fiber communications. additional paintings has drastically extended the applying components of optical fibers, which now additionally comprise fields like fiber amplifiers, fiber lasers, supercontinuum new release, pulse compression, and fiber-optic sensors. This range of purposes has been enabled via numerous sorts of optical fibers, that can tremendously vary in lots of respects. This box advisor presents an summary of optical fiber expertise. It not just describes many differing kinds of fibers and their homes, but additionally offers in a compact shape the suitable actual foundations. subtle arithmetic, e.g., relating fiber modes, aren't integrated, as such matters are coated intimately by way of numerous textbooks. either passive and energetic (amplifying) fibers are mentioned, and an summary on fiber nonlinearities and the applying of energetic fibers in amplifiers and lasers is integrated. the massive bibliography comprises many beneficial references, protecting either pioneering paintings and later seminal articles and books. This advisor can be very beneficial for a large viewers, together with practitioners in in addition to researchers.
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Additional resources for Field Guide to Optical Fiber Technology (SPIE Field Guide Vol. FG16)
Note that the bending of a fiber can not only increase the propagation losses, but can also induce birefringence (p. 25) as well as modify (often reduce) the effective mode area. This is an important issue in the context of large mode area fibers (p. 60). The strength of such effects can strongly depend on the fiber design. 24 Optical Fiber Technology: Basics of Fibers Chromatic Dispersion Chromatic dispersion is the phenomenon where the phase velocity and group velocity of light in a medium depend on the optical frequency.
Strong self-phase modulation occurs even for sub-kW peak powers in less than a meter of fiber. Further increased nonlinearities occur in soft-glass fibers, where the material nonlinearity can be an order of magnitude larger. 1 mrad/W·m. Even much smaller values than that are obtained for hollow-core fibers, where the light has little overlap with the glass. Optical Fiber Technology: Nonlinear Effects in Fibers 37 Soliton Pulses Under certain conditions, the effects of chromatic dispersion and the Kerr nonlinearity in a fiber can exactly cancel each other, such that the pulses stay unchanged during propagation.
The measured losses are then close to the intrinsic losses as shown in the graph below. 6 m, whereas Rayleigh scattering dominates at shorter wavelengths. UV absorption is not important in the considered wavelength range. 2 dB/km. 24 m (not shown) can be observed. , with germania. Multimode fibers also have higher losses. They typically have higher numerical apertures, which increase the tendency for scattering at the corecladding interface. Such fibers are still used for shorter transmission distances, since their losses are less critical.