By Arthur H. Westing
This paintings provides the evolution of the conventional suggestion of "national defense" as army protection to also embody "environmental protection" after which unavoidably additionally "social (societal) security", thence to be termed "comprehensive human security". It accomplishes this essentially through providing 11
of the author's personal benchmark papers released among 1983 and 2010 (additionally delivering bibliographic citations to one other 36 of the author's comparable guides in the course of that period). The paintings stresses the significance of transfrontier (regional) cooperation, and likewise acknowledges international overpopulation
as a key obstacle to attaining accomplished human security.
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Additional resources for From Environmental to Comprehensive Security
Eide, A. 1975. Planting every inch. Ceres (Rome) 8(1):50–53. El-Hinnawi, E. 1985. Environmental Refugees. Nairobi: UN Environment Programme, 41 pp. Falkenmark, M. 1986. Fresh waters as a factor in strategic policy and policy. H. ). Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 280 pp: pp 85–113. Fraser, R. ). 1985. Sudan. Keesing’s Contemporary Archives (Harlow, UK) 31(7):33700–33707. Galtung, J. 1982. Environment, Development and Military Activity: Towards Alternative Security Doctrines.
The moon is the only celestial body that could conceivably become accessible for exploitation in the foreseeable future. At least two multilateral treaties would impinge upon such activity: (a) the 1967 Outer Space Treaty (UNTS 8843); and (b) the 1979 Moon Agreement (UNTS 23002). The Outer Space Treaty boasts more than 80 states parties,7 including all of the major powers. The states parties have agreed that the moon ‘is not subject to national appropriation’ by any means (Article 2). It further commits the states parties to the ‘use’ of the moon ‘for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development’ and that the moon ‘shall be the province of all mankind’, for ‘use by all States without discrimination of any kind’ (Article 1).
1973. Co-operation in the Field of the Environment concerning Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States. New York: UN General Assembly Resolution No. 3129 (XXVIII), 13 December 1973, 1 p. UNGA. 1974. Definition of Aggression. New York: UN General Assembly Resolution No. 3314 (XXIX), 14 December 1974, 6 pp. UNGA. 1982. World Charter for Nature. New York: UN General Assembly Resolution No. 37/7, 28 October 1982, 5 pp. A. 1982. International security implications of materials and energy resource depletion.