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Additional info for Fundamentals of nursing research
Nurses must challenge themselves to seek better, more cost-effective nursing strategies, while not compromising clients' health care needs. Nursing research is the key to providing appropriate nursing services. It is the process that allows the multitude of questions that surface in daily nursing practice to be answered. It also provides the data that document the effectiveness and efficacy of nursing care. Patient care based on this information will ensure that the services nurses deliver and the way they deliver those services are based on an ever-growing and refined body of knowledge specific to nursing.
Patient care based on this information will ensure that the services nurses deliver and the way they deliver those services are based on an ever-growing and refined body of knowledge specific to nursing. The nurse relying on nursing research to guide practice can be reasonably confident that an essential element in competent nursing practice has been met. Historical Roots The history of nursing research stems largely from the era of Florence Nightingale. Her classic work, Notes on Nursing (1859/1969), stressed the need for careful observation in caring for patients.
I. Title. Nursing Research. 73'072dc20 94-14578 CIP Acquisitions Editor: Jan Wall Production Editor: Joan M. Flaherty Manufacturing Buyer: Dana L. Cerrito Design: Judy Ashkenaz Editorial Production Services and Typesetting: Total Concept Associates Cover Design: Hannus Design Associates Printing and Binding: Malloy Lithographing, Inc. Printed in the United States of America 98 97 96 95 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Page v CONTENTS Preface xiii Unit One: Nurse as Scientist 1 Chapter 1 Evolution of a Body of Nursing Knowledge 3 Introduction 4 Value of Nursing Research 4 Historical Roots 4 1900-1970: Laying the Groundwork 5 1970-Present: New World Trends 6 Hallmarks of Success 12 Boundaries for Nursing Study 12 Scholarly Publications 13 Resources for Promoting Nursing Research 16 Future of Nursing Research 18 Critical Overview of the Evolution of Nursing Knowledge 18 References 20 Page vi Chapter 2 Critical Inquiry 23 Introduction 24 Research Defined 24 Problem-Solving Process 24 Research Process 26 Nursing Research Defined 28 Contribution of the Sciences to Nursing Research 31 Development of a Discipline 31 A Unique Body of Nursing Knowledge 31 The Paradox of Nursing esearch 32 The Aim and Purpose of Nursing Research 33 Critical Overview of the Process of Critical Inquiry 35 References 37 Chapter 3 Role of the Nurse Investigator 39 Introduction 40 Guidelines for Participating in Research 40 Expectations of the Profession 40 Societal Expectations 41 Interprofessional Influences 41 Research and the Entry-level Professional Nurse 42 NLN and ANA Guidelines for Functioning 42 The Consumer: A Critical Appraiser of Research 43 Role as Research Designer and Producer 48 Role as Replicator 50 Role as Data Collector 51 Critical Overview of the Role of the Nurse Investigator 56 References 57 Unit Two: Asking the Question 59 Chapter 4 Selecting a Research Topic in Nursing 61 Introduction 62 The Investigator's Interest 62 Feasibility 63 Researcher's Expertise and Capabilities 64 Purpose of the Investigation 67 Page vii Importance of the Study to Nursing 68 Applied versus Basic Research 71 Kinds of Investigation 74 Critical Overview of the Selection of a Research Topic in Nursing 76 References 78 Chapter 5 Identifying the Problem for Study 79 Introduction 80 Conceptual Models 80 Nursing Models 81 Concepts 83 Borrowed Models 85 Theories 87 Propositions 89 Concept-Construct-Variable 91 Scientific Reasoning 95 Deductive 96 Inductive 96 The Problem Statement 98 pecifying the Topic or Concept of Interest 99 Concepts and Their Relationships 101 The Focus of the Study 102 The Population 104 Critical Overview of the Identification of a Problem for Study 105 References 107 Chapter 6 Review of the Literature 109 Introduction 110 Steps in a Review of the Literature 111 The Initial Search 111 The Secondary Search 112 Identifying Publications 114 A Computer Search 114 A Manual Search 117 Keeping a Record 118 Writing the Review of the Literature 118 Page viii Critical Overview of the Review of the Literature 121 References 123 Bibliography 123 Chapter 7 Protecting Research Participants 125 Introduction 126 Guidelines for Conducting Research 126 Professional Guidelines 127 Federal Guidelines 127 Research Participants at Risk 129 Informed Consent 132 Confidentiality and Anonymity 137 Participant Withdrawal 140 Deception 141 Debriefing 143 Role of the Research Committee and IRB 143 Critical Overview of Research Participant Selection and Protection 145 References 146 Note 147 Unit Three: Answering the Question 149 Chapter 8 Quantitative Designs in Research 151 Introduction 152 Experimental Designs 152 The Experiment 152 The Quasi-experimental Design 157 Nonexperimental Designs 159 Key Concepts in Quantitative Designs 161 Key Research Concepts 161 Hypothesis Formation 161 Identifying Variables 162 Defining Terms 165 Sample Selection: Choosing Subjects 168 Probability Sampling 168 Nonprobability Sampling 171 Validity in Relation to the Research Design 173 Page ix Critical Overview of Quantitative Designs in Research 175 References 175 Bibliography 176 Chapter 9 Measurement 177 Introduction 178 Measuring Variables 178 The Nominal Level of Measurement 179 The Ordinal Level of Measurement 181 The Interval Level of Measurement 183 The Ratio Level of Measurement 185 Methods of Measurement 187 The Instrument 187 Errors of Measurement 188 Validity 189 Reliability 193 Critical Overview of Measurement 197 References 197 Chapter 10 Data Analysis 199 Introduction 200 Basic Concepts in Descriptive Statistics 201 Descriptive Measures 201 The Normal Distribution 208 Correlation 210 Basic Concepts in Inferential Statistics 215 Probability 215 Sampling Error (Standard Error) 216 Null Hypothesis 217 Statistical Significance 218 Inferential Statistical Tests 221 One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 223 Factorial Analysis of Variance 225 Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) 227 Multivariate Analysis 229 Correlation 230 Page x Inferential Statistical Tests 231 Chi-Square Tests (Nonparametric) 231 Critical Overview of Data Analysis 231 References 232 Chapter 11 Qualitative Designs in Research 233 Introduction 234 Development of Qualitative Research Designs 234 Qualitative Research: Definition and Purpose 235 Qualitative Research Methods 238 Types of Qualitative Inquiry 238 Sources of Data 248 Participant Observation 250 Recording the Data 251 Recording for Bias 253 Analyzing the Data 254 Literature Review 256 Analyzing the Findings 257 Manual Analysis 257 Computer Analysis 257 Scientific Adequacy in Qualitative Designs 259 Credibility 260 Transferability 260 Dependability 260 Confirmability 260 Critical Overview of Qualitative Research Designs 261 References 262 Chapter 12 Reviewing the Research Findings 265 Introduction 266 Interpreting the Results 273 Drawing Conclusions 276 Implications for Nursing 277 Critical Overview of Reviewing the Research Findings 277 References 279 Page xi Chapter 13 Communicating Study Results 265 Introduction 282 The Research Report 282 Elements of the Research Report 284 Selecting the Target Audience 285 Selecting the Mode of Presentation 287 Written Research Reports 287 Oral Research Reports 288 Tips for Presenting the Research Report 289 Basic Considerations in Facilitating Use of the Research Report 290 Titling the Research Report 290 Research Abstract 290 References 292 The Investigator's Background and Credentials 292 Critical Overview of Communicating Research 294 References 297 Chapter 14 Evaluating Research Reports 299 Introduction 300 Aim of Research Evaluation 300 Critique Guidelines 301 Critiquing Process 302 Mapping the Research Report 303 Critique of the Quantitative Research Report 303 Critique of the Qualitative Research Report 304 Basic Considerations in Evaluating Research Reports 308 Format and Preparation of the Research Evaluation 311 Implementing the Research Report Findings in Practice 313 Review of the Research 315 Plan for Nursing Practice Change/Evalutaion 315 Critical Overview of the Research Evaluation Process 317 References 317 Appendixes 319 Page xii Appendix A Elements of Critical Appraisal 321 Appendix B Format for Evaluation of the Quantitative Research Report 330 Appendix C Format for Evaluation of the Qualitative Research Report 335 Glossary 341 Index 351 Page xiii PREFACE This text is designed to reach both the individual who is studying research for the first time and the individual who needs to review in anticipation of advanced involvement in research.