By Dr. Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof, Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, Dr. James Collins (auth.)
This new version contains fresh advances within the know-how of the worldwide Positioning approach (GPS) and considers its complete operational prestige. It exhibits in accomplished demeanour how GPS works and the way it may be used for certain measurements (i.e., surveying) in addition to for navigation. New fabric has been extra, however the total constitution conforms to the previous versions. the fundamental mathematical versions for numerous modes of GPS operations and distinct clarification of the sensible use of GPS are accurately built. Description of right venture making plans, execution, information aid, and coordinate computation is supplied for beginner GPS clients. also, the textual content exemplifies purposes and kinds of initiatives the place diversified dimension modes are used.
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Extra info for Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice
Also, the Macrometer required that the ephemerides for each day's tracking be generated at the home office prior to each day's observing session. The next major development in GPS surveying occurred in 1985 when manufacturers started to produce CIA-code receivers that measured and output the carrier phase. The first of this class of receivers was trade-named the Trimble 4000S. , laptop) computer. The 4000S was the first of the generic C I A-code receivers that eventually were produced by a host of manufacturers.
The key to the system's accuracy is the fact that all signal components are precisely controlled by atomic clocks. The Block II satellites have four on-board time standards, two rubidium and two cesium clocks. The longterm frequency stability of these clocks reaches a few parts in 10- 13 and 10- l4 over one day. The hydrogen masers planned for the Block IIR's have a stability of 10- 14 to 10- 15 over one day, cf. Scherrer (1985). 23 MHz. 60 MHz. , the ionospheric refraction, cf. Sect. 2. The pseudoranges that are derived from measured travel times of the signal from each satellite to the receiver use two pseudorandom noise (PRN) codes that are modulated (superimposed) onto the two base carriers.
P-code receivers This type of receiver uses the P-code and, thus, enables lock on to the L1 and L2 carrier. The P-code data on the carriers are derived by correlating the signals with a replica of the P-code. To do this, the structure of the code must be known. The cross correlation is performed by matching the received satellite signal with the receiver generated code replica. No carrier phase measurement can be performed before the code components of the received satellite signal are removed, see Ashjaee (1993).