By Mikael Sandberg
This publication asks even if international relief will help post-communist societies to lead their technological innovation structures in additional environmentally sound instructions. Mikael Sandberg examines the legacy of Soviet-type innovation structures, then seems at possibilities for greener thoughts in post-communist Poland, considering:* institutional transformation and environmental funding incentives * the patience and unfold of the 1st environmental reduction initiatives * the adoption of nationwide atmosphere regulations and the position of relief of their implementation * proof of adjusting innovation platforms in critical and jap Europe
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Additional resources for Green post-communism?: environmental aid, Polish innovation, and evolutionary political economics
However, some systems cannot accomplish that. 15 TOWARDS A ‘GREENER’ POST-COMMUNISM? The closer we come to such nation-driven or institution-guided innovation paths, the more applicable is the Deutsch model (1963) of national (cybernetic) steering of innovation. For instance, nations may be more or less centrally and decentrally organised in innovation matters, may use quite different innovation policies, and may also be very heterogeneous in diffusion of innovations. Pathological, ‘Soviet-type’ learning National systems, such as innovation systems, thus show quite different flexibility in terms of the continuous adjustment of informal and formal institutions, such as to incorporated technology.
Qualitative aspects quantified: product quality Another crucial aspect of adoption persistence is product quality levels (under a lack of competitive conditions). 3), which included a number of factors that could be argued to influence levels of quality, such as: • • • • • export orientation of the production qualifications of Soviet personnel handling the plant number of trainees in the programme provided for the Soviets experience of Soviet deals of the Swedish supplier of technology quality of domestic supplies.
The third failure Deutsch suggests is ‘the decline or degeneration of steering capacity or co-ordination’. This was indeed a typical trait of the ‘stagnation period’ (the Brezhnev regime). This failure may involve the ‘overvaluation of structure over function’. The most obvious example is the rigid Party-as-State structures Gorbachev was the last to defend in the USSR. The failure may also imply an ‘overvaluation of machinery over performance’ according to Deutsch, something I feel was the most distinguishing element of Soviet-type technology culture (‘technology-aspanacea’ leading to conclusions like ‘once we get the equipment, problems will be solved’).