By Kaplan D.M., White C.G.
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Many alterations were made during this variation, first to the nomenclature in order that the publication is in contract with the overseas approach of devices (S. I. ) and secondly to the circuit diagrams so they agree to B. S. S. 3939. The e-book has been enlarged and now has 546 difficulties. even more emphasis has been given to semiconductor units and transistor circuits, extra subject matters and references for additional analyzing were brought, a number of the unique difficulties and options were taken out and several other minor ameliorations and corrections were made.
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Additional info for Hands-on electronics
Does the voltage across the capacitor lag or lead the current through it? Explain. 26 Hands-on electronics The other way to analyze this circuit is as an AC voltage divider, using Eq. 13 with R2 replaced by the reactance of the capacitor, X C , and R1 + R2 replaced by the total impedance, Z , of the resistor and capacitor in series. 21) R 2 + X C2 1 1 + (ω RC)2 . 22) We see that the attenuation (Vout /Vin ) depends on the frequency. What attenuation do you observe at 50 kHz? Calculate what you expect, and compare.
Free Electron Hole Electric Field Electric Field _ _ P-type I + V N-type _ I R Forward-Biased Diode Circuit P-type Is _ + _ + + _ + + _ + + N-type Is Depletion Region V + R Reverse-Biased Diode Circuit Fig. 2. Diode circuit symbol and biasing. (see Fig. 2). New holes are created within the P-material as electrons jump from the semiconductor to the metal contacts. At the junction, the holes from the P-type material meet electrons from the N-type material and combine. A PN junction thus allows current to ﬂow easily in one direction but blocks current ﬂow in the reverse direction.
They act very much like silicon junction diodes except that they emit light when conducting forward current and have forward voltage drops about twice as large as silicon diodes. Infrared, red, orange, yellow, green, and blue LEDs are commercially available. Zener diodes are manufactured with controlled reverse-breakdown properties. Their forward characteristics are similar to those of junction diodes; however, Zener diodes are used in reverse-biased mode. While reverse breakdown typically destroys a standard junction diode, Zener diodes are designed to operate at and around their reverse-breakdown (‘Zener’) voltage.