By Bp Safety Group
This booklet raises the attention of operators in the chemical and approach industries, to the risks of electrical energy and static electrical energy. It starts by way of describing how electric and static electric dangers can ensue, sooner than declaring the aptitude dangers. This ebook contains a part on arc flash and blast dangers and new incident descriptions masking garage tank filling dangers and lightning risks. utilizing case experiences of tangible injuries to focus on the aptitude threats and clarify the prospective factors prior to giving capability safeguards, it increases the data and information of operators to the risks of electrical energy and static electrical energy, permitting them to identify risks sooner than injuries ensue. The booklet concludes with a self-test part permitting readers to check their realizing of the data offered. an exceptional advent to the subject for college kids.
desk of Contents
2. Sparks, Arcs and Ignition strength
three. quarter class
four. risks of Static electrical energy
five. dangers of Lightning
6. dangers of Stray Currents
7. Bonding and Grounding
eight. dangers of electric surprise
nine. Explosion and hearth dangers of electric apparatus
10. risks of flawed Operation of electric apparatus
eleven. Safeguards for electric apparatus
12. strength Outages
thirteen. a few issues to recollect
attempt your self!
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33 HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY AND STATIC ELECTRICITY It should be noted that if fire occurrence is low, tackling internal fires on these tanks when they are not fitted with fixed equipment is very difficult if the roof has not been blown away like in the incident above (refer to the BP Process Safety Series Fire Safety booklet Liquid Hydrocarbon Tank Fires: Prevention and Response booklet in this series for more details). Special grounding of steel tanks is not needed for lightning protection. Tanks resting on the earth, or even on concrete rings with piping disconnected, have such a low electrical resistance to ground that special grounding is not necessary.
57 HAZARDS OF ELECTRICITY AND STATIC ELECTRICITY Figure 53 Ineffective conduit seal No. 1 permits gas from leaking underground conduit to enter the vapourtight (cast metal) lighting panelboard where explosion causes housing to shatter. Figure 54 shows a close-up view of a vapourtight lighting panelboard similar to those that exploded. Figure 55 shows a close-up view of an explosion-proof lighting panel board which is designed to contain an internal explosion. Figure 54 This vapourtight lighting panelboard is typical of those shattered by the explosion.
As an example, process unit switchrooms and control rooms are sometimes pressurized. Pressurizing consists of keeping the equipment housing or room under positive pressure with uncontaminated air. Thus, the uncontaminated air can leak out, but no gases or vapours can leak in. Needless to say, if a pressurizing system fails, an explosion hazard may result. To avoid any hazard, observe the following rules: • Keep the pressurizing system (instrument air for instrument housings, motordriven fans for large synchronous motors and rooms) functioning properly.