By Sergio Lopes Viana, Maria Custódia Machado Ribeiro, Bruno Beber Machado (auth.)
Knowledge of the imaging appearances of the immature joint is important for proper snapshot interpretation, but this can be a quite ignored topic within the literature and in education. This ebook provides the fundamental details on imaging of the immature joint with the purpose of supplying radiologists (musculoskeletal experts and generalists alike) and different experts with a brand new device that may support vastly in overcoming the day-by-day demanding situations posed by means of interpretation of pediatric examinations within the twenty-first century. the outlet chapters ponder the present function, benefits, and boundaries of every modality in pediatric evaluate and current the imaging appearances of anatomic and developmental peculiarities of the turning out to be skeleton. Findings in a variety of very important stipulations are then defined in a chain of richly illustrated chapters that current appearances on assorted imaging stories, from traditional radiography via to trendy high-tech modalities.
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Extra resources for Joint Imaging in Childhood and Adolescence
Nonetheless, they are limited for early diagnosis of joint diseases and for the assessment of the soft tissues. Radiographs must always be available before requesting more sophisticated imaging studies. • US is inexpensive, well tolerated, and sensitive to synovitis and hyperemia, yielding images in real time. However, it is an operator-dependent study, limited to the assessment of superficial structures. Despite its usefulness for the evaluation of the soft tissues, little or no information can be obtained about the bones.
Extension of the inflammation to adjacent bursae and synovial cysts (such as popliteal cysts, which are particularly common in JIA) is usually obvious on US (Fig. 28). In addition, US is also is very adequate for guidance of diagnostic or therapeutic joint punctures in children.
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Among the several imaging methods able to assess bone mineral density, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used, the most studied, and the more uniformly standardized. In a nutshell, a DEXA scanner is able to interpret the different levels of absorption of X-rays by the different body tissues to estimate the bone mineral density in a given site or in the whole body. 7 Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Fig. 27 DEXA of the lumbar spine (a) and of the whole body (b) of a healthy 11-year-old female.