By Wolfgang Demtröder
Keeping abreast of the most recent suggestions and purposes, this new version of the normal reference and graduate textual content on laser spectroscopy has been thoroughly revised and improved. whereas the final inspiration is unchanged, the hot version incorporates a large array of recent fabric, e.g. frequency doubling in exterior cavities, trustworthy cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV assets, extra delicate detection recommendations, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray sector and the attosecond range), regulate of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs in a position to synchronize self sufficient femtosecond lasers, coherent topic waves, and nonetheless extra purposes in chemical research, scientific diagnostics, and engineering. what is extra, the chapters on non-linear spectroscopy, ion trapping, ultra-short laser pulses and new advancements were considerably enhanced and enlarged. moreover, 50 new figures illustrate the most recent advancements and results.
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Extra info for Laser Spectroscopy: Vol. 2 Experimental Techniques
3c. The sensitivity of this technique is demonstrated by Fig. 7, which shows an overtone absorption line of the water molecule H2 O, recorded with an unmodulated laser and with this modulation technique. The signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measured with phase modulation is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than without modulation. The sensivity reaches a maximum if the modulation frequency is chosen to be equal to the width of the absorption line. Fig. 5a,b. Sideband amplitudes for: (a) amplitude modulation; (b) phase modulation 12 1.
Unfortunately, only the fraction δ of the fluorescence photons emitted into all directions can be collected, where δ = dΩ/4π depends on the solid angle, dΩ, accepted by the fluorescence detector. Not every photon impinging onto the photomultiplier cathode releases a photoelectron; only the fraction ηph = n pe /n ph of these photons produces on the average n pe photoelectrons. The quantity ηph is called the quantum efficiency of the photocathode (Vol. 1, Sect. 2). The number n pe of photoelectrons counted per second is then n pe = n a ηk ηph δ = (Ni σik n L Δx)ηk ηph δ .
One part is directly sent into the cavity ring-down ring resonator and one of the TEM00 modes of the cavity is locked to the laser frequency. This part serves as the local oscillator. The other part is frequency shifted in an AOM (acousto-optic modulator) by one free spectral range of the cavity. It is therefore resonant with the adjacent TEM00 mode. It is chopped by the AOM at 40 kHz. 32) 26 1. Doppler-Limited Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Lasers Fig. 18. Apparatus for heterodyne-detected cavity ring-down spectroscopy is measured by the detector.