By Howard Cam Luong, Gerry Chi Tak Leung
This e-book presents architectures and layout suggestions to permit CMOS frequency synthesizers to function at low-supply voltage at excessive frequency with sturdy part noise and occasional energy intake. It bargains in-depth updates on lots of those innovations, and introduces invaluable instructions and step by step tactics on habit simulations of frequency synthesizers. ultimately, the authors function 4 winning prototypes to demonstrate strength functions of the architectures and layout options defined. Their paintings will end up worthy for engineers, managers, and researchers operating in RFIC layout for instant purposes.
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Extra info for Low-Voltage CMOS RF Frequency Synthesizers
From the system point of view, the maximum power of the blocking signals and thus the phase noise requirement are different at different frequency offsets from the carrier. As a result, the phase noise requirement should be based on the worst case consideration. 4. 2, an oscillator by itself cannot recover the phase error and the frequency shift. However, as long as the phase of the oscillator can be controlled and locked, the frequency can also be locked. This is because the change of the phase with respect to time is equivalent to its frequency.
In a third-order CP-PLL, the loop ﬁlter capacitor, C2 , (as depicted in Fig. 37) where Vctrl is the ripple of the VCO’s control voltage, fp is the pole of the loop ﬁlter, n is the order of the loop ﬁlter, and fref is the reference frequency of the input clock. 4 Phase-locked loop 19 carrier ∆t ∆ICP spurious tone spurious tone M/f ref VCO input Loop filter Output (a) f0 −fref /M f0 f0+fref /M (b) Fig. 11 (a) VCO is modulated by the charge injection, (b) VCO output spectrum with spurious tone due to charge injection Fig.
10) The phase detector acts as a ‘phase-error ampliﬁer’ to sense the phase difference between the output signals of the dividers, and to generate a voltage proportional to the phase difference, which in turn is applied to the charge pump and the loop ﬁlter to control the VCO output frequency. Accordingly, the output frequency of the divider N is varied and is compared with the output frequency of the divider M by the phase detector. With the loop closed, the phase of the VCO signal is continuously being detected and adjusted.