By G. Schneider, M.R. Prince, J.F.M. Meaney, V.B. Ho, E.J. Potchen
The creation of contrast-enhanced MRA within the early to mid Nineteen Nineties revolutionized the medical method of vascular imaging: a correct non-invasive imaging modality, no longer requiring ionizing radiation or most likely nephrotoxic iodinated distinction media, used to be in a position to compete with the extra harmful and invasive catheter angiography.
this present day, MRA is a secure, easy-to-perform method repeatedly utilized in such a lot imaging facilities and the continuing improvement of speedier, extra strong magnets and more suitable distinction brokers is more and more assisting to beat a number of the early obstacles of the technique.
Subdivided into 3 sections (technique, symptoms and useful functions) and written via the world over popular specialists within the box, this quantity sticks out within the present literature on MRA through providing:
· unique details on series parameters for various magnets and vascular territories for the optimization of the MRA technique;
· a large assessment of the important symptoms for which contrast-enhanced MR angiography is preferably suited;
· the common MR imaging findings linked to a number of pathologies;
· the appropriateness of contrast-enhanced MRA in comparison with different modalities, reminiscent of CTA and CEUS;
· the aptitude pitfalls and obstacles of the strategy in medical routine.
The quantity will end up necessary to radiologists and clinicians wishing to extend, enhance or consolidate their regimen method of vascular MR imaging.
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Extra info for Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Techniques, Indications and Practical Applications
Phase contrast angiogram of the intracranial vessels like TOF MRA, phase contrast MRA does not impose any restrictions on image orientation, because the method is not dependent on inflow effects. 2D phase contrast sequences are well suited for imaging vessels in a large volume. Because only moving spins contribute to the measured signal, the background signal is very effectively suppressed. Even thick single slices of about 100 mm can be imaged and the overall acquisition times are relatively short (about 1-2 min).
Due to T1 shortening, the signal-to-noise ratio increases, thereby improving the detection of small vessels and 90 cm/sec) are encoded simultaneously but in only one encoding direction. All three acquired images are then combined to form a sum image. In CE MRA, the signal-to-noise ratio of the blood increases after contrast agent administration because the greater T1 shortening of the spins leads to more signal. Phase contrast angiography, unlike TOF angiography, can benefit from this ef- fect without the penalty of increased background signal.
1 mmol/kg) have also been found to be adequate . In general, the use of a larger contrast agent dose has the benefit of prolonging the arterial phase and providing the operator with an additional buffer to compensate for errors in timing. 2 mmol/kg dose, and then reduce the dose based on their mastery of timing for CE MRA. Unfortunately, aside from increased cost, larger contrast agent doses have the unwanted effect of increasing the likelihood of venous contamination and diminishing operator options should additional CE MRA or repeat acquisitions be desired during the same exam period.