By L. F. Chen, C. K. Ong, C. P. Neo, V. V. Varadan, Vijay K. Varadan
The improvement of excessive pace, excessive frequency circuits and structures calls for an realizing of the homes of fabrics performing at the microwave point. This accomplished reference units out to handle this requirement by way of delivering counsel at the improvement of compatible dimension methodologies adapted for quite a few fabrics and alertness platforms.
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Additional resources for Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterisation
If H2 H1 , there will be an eccentric local loop, which is always contained within the main cycle. 75) µ0 H where H is the amplitude of the alternating ﬁeld and B is the corresponding variation of the 22 Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization magnetic induction. 3 Soft and hard magnetic materials According to the values of their coercive ﬁelds, magnetic materials can be classiﬁed into soft and hard magnetic materials. 22(a) shows a typical hysteresis loop of a soft magnetic material.
A) Soft magnetic material and (b) hard magnetic material hard magnetic materials. Generally speaking, the coercive ﬁeld of a soft magnetic material is less than ten oersted, while that of a hard magnetic material is larger than several hundred oersted. It should be noted that remanence ﬂux density Br is not a criteria for the classiﬁcation of soft and hard magnetic materials. A magnetic material with rectangular hysteresis loop has a relatively high value of Br , but high value of Br does not mean high value of Hc .
2(b) is that of an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, there are the same numbers of electrons as holes. Intrinsic semiconductors usually have high resistivity, and they are often used as the starting materials for fabricating extrinsic semiconductors. Silicon and germanium are typical intrinsic semiconductors. An extrinsic semiconductor is obtained by adding a very small amount of impurities to an intrinsic semiconductor, and this procedure is called doping. If the impurities have a higher number of valence electrons than that of the host, the resulting extrinsic semiconductor is called type n, indicating that the majority of the mobile charges are negative (electrons).