By Craig C.R., Stitzel R.E. (eds.)
Construction at the strengths of earlier variants, the 6th variation of contemporary Pharmacology with scientific functions keeps to supply an up to date and complete textbook for college students of pharmacology. concentrating on the medical program of substances inside of a context of the key rules of pharmacology, this article offers either scholars and college with an creation to trendy pharmacotherapeutics.
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Conversely, a decrease in gastrointestinal motility may promote absorption by increasing contact time. Thus, the effect depends on the drug and change in motility. Serious intestinal diseases, particularly those associated with intestinal sloughing, can be expected to alter drug absorption dramatically. Food Absorption of most drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is reduced or delayed by the presence of food in the gut. Drugs such as the tetracyclines, which are highly ionized, can complex with Caϩϩ ions in membranes, food, or milk, leading to a reduction in their rate of absorption.
Tetracycline deposition during odontogenesis may lead to a permanent yellow-brown discoloration of teeth, dysplasia, and poor bone development. Lead can substitute for calcium in the bone crystal lattice, resulting in bone brittleness. Bone may become a reservoir for the slow release of toxic substances, such as lead and cisplatin. PHYSIOLOGICAL BARRIERS TO DRUG DISTRIBUTION Blood-Brain Barrier The capillary membrane between the plasma and brain cells is much less permeable to water-soluble drugs than is the membrane between plasma and other tissues.
The physicochemical considerations discussed in Chapter 3 that govern the passage of drugs across biological barriers are applicable to both excretory and absorptive phenomena. 2), especially for those that are water soluble and not volatile. The three principal processes that determine the urinary excretion of a drug are glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption (mostly passive back-diffusion). 2 Renal excretion of drugs. Filtration of small non–protein-bound drugs occurs through glomerular capillary pores.