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Download MRCP 2 practice papers: case histories, data interpretations by Hans-Ulrich Laasch PDF

By Hans-Ulrich Laasch

The MRCP half 2 exam is more and more oriented round evidence-based drugs, up to date sufferer administration and present directions. this can be a flow clear of the esoteric questions visible some time past and it makes a extra valuable examination. This publication combines the 3 sections of the examination; case histories, facts interpretations and photographic fabric, to provide applicants all around perform.

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Additional info for MRCP 2 practice papers: case histories, data interpretations and photographic material

Sample text

Because of this information, it was possible to group the patients according to the injected activity and dose. The Thorotrast® was deposited in the liver and resulted in a lifetime protracted radiation exposure. These data were related to the protracted exposures to both high- and low-LET radiation in the experimental animal studies that are used in this Report to support the human data. Thus, it is not necessary to estimate or use a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) in extrapolation of these data to other populations exposed to low doses or low-dose rates.

1). 2) is also shown. 3, the liver risks are related to the time between injection and the observation of the liver cancer (latency time). The data presented in the figures illustrate that (1) the tumor incidence increases as a function of follow-up time, (2) the tumor incidence increases with injected activity, dose rate and total dose, and (3) that the slope of the tumor rate seems to be nonlinear at lower total doses. In an Fig. 1. Cumulative rate sum-limit method (sum of the tumors per year, accumulated as a function of time after injection) of malignant liver tumors in Thorotrast® patients who had been evaluated by whole-body counting and whose area of paravascular deposit was less than 10 cm2.

7. 1 Relative Biological Effectiveness of the Radiation Emitted by Radionuclides Extensive cellular and molecular data have been derived to help understand the RBE of different types of radiation (NCRP, 1990) including the types emitted by internally-deposited radioactive materials (Brooks, 1975). Cellular and animal data help improve our basic understanding of the radiation-induced damage in the liver that leads to liver cancer. RBE values are dependent on endpoint, exposure type, and exposure rate for the types of radiation being compared (NCRP, 1990).

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