By Daniele Ganser
The CIA and the British mystery provider MI6, in collaboration with the army alliance NATO and ecu army mystery prone organize a community of clandestine anticommunist armies in Western Europe after global battle II. the key squaddies have been expert on distant islands within the Mediterranean and in unorthodox struggle facilities in England and within the usa through the golf green Berets and SAS certain Forces. The community used to be armed with explosives, computing device weapons and high-tech communique gear hidden in underground bunkers and mystery palms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In a few nations, the key military associated up with right-wing terrorists who in a mystery conflict engaged in political manipulation, harassment of left wing events, massacres, coup d'etats and torture.
Codenamed "Gladio" ('the sword'), the Italian mystery military was once uncovered in 1990 via Italian major Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the clicking stated the "the most sensible saved, and so much harmful, political-military mystery when you consider that global struggle II" (Observer, 18. November 1990) and saw that "The tale turns out directly from the pages of a political thriller." (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever seeing that, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have additionally been found in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They have been the world over coordinated through the Pentagon and NATO and had their final recognized assembly within the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.
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Extra info for NATO's Secret Army: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe (Contemporary Security Studies)
42 32 When in the mid-1970s the parliament of the United States realised that the CIA as well as the Pentagon had increased their power almost beyond control and had also abused it on numerous occassions, US Senator Frank Church wisely observed that 'The growth of Intelligence abuses reflects a more general failure of our basic institutions'. 43 The overall impact of the investigation of the US Congress was however marginal and the secret services supported by the White House continued to abuse their power as the Iran Contra scandal in 1986 highlighted.
The CIA, the most powerful secret service of the world, was not more cooperative than the world's largest military alliance when it came to the sensitive issue of Gladio and stay-behind questions. Founded in 1947, two years before the establishment of NATO, the main task of the CIA during the Cold War was to combat Communism globally in covert action operations and promote the influence of the United States. 41 Beyond the Americans the CIA also carried out numerous covert action operations in Asia and Africa, among which the most prominent were the overthrow of the Mossadegh government in Iran in 1953, the support to the white South African Police which in 1962 led to the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela, the support for Osama Bin Laden's Al Qaida in Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion of 1979, and the support to Communist Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot from bases inside Cambodia following the defeat of the US in Vietnam in 1975.
38 French parliamentarian De Donnea shared a different perspective when he declared: 'Mr. ' Vandemeulebroucke stressed that it was above all the secrecy of the entire affair that greatly worried him as a parliamentarian, for 'the budgets for these secret organisations were also kept secret. They were not discussed in any parliament, and we wish to express our concern at the fact that... 40 Following the debate the parliament of the EU decided to pass a resolution on the Gladio affair in which the parliamentarians critically reflected upon the Gladio phenomenon and in seven points, formulated as a preamble to the resolution, attempted to summarise the main features of the Gladio phenomenon: 1 2 22 'Having regard to the revelation by several European governments of the existence for 40 years of a clandestine parallel intelligence and armed operations organisation in several Member States of the Community'; 'whereas for over 40 years this organisation has escaped all democratic controls and has been run by the secret services of the states concerned in collaboration with NATO'; 3 4 5 6 7 'fearing the danger that such clandestine networks may have interfered illegally in the internal political affairs of Member States or may still do so'; 'whereas in certain Member States military secret services (or uncontrolled branches thereof) were involved in serious cases of terrorism and crime as evidenced by various judicial inquiries'; 'whereas these organisations operated and continue to operate completely outside the law since they arc not subject to any parliamentary control and frequently those holding the highest government and constitutional posts are kept in the dark as to these matters'; 'whereas the various "GLADIO" organisations have at their disposal independent arsenals and military resources which give them an unknown strike potential, thereby jeopardising the democratic structures of the countries in which they are operating or have been operating'; and 'greatly concerned at the existence of decision-making and operational bodies which are not subject to any form of democratic control and are of a completely clandestine nature at time when greater Community co-operation in the field of security is a constant subject of discussion'.