By Clive Archer
This quantity analyzes the Nordic and Baltic states' dating with the ecu defense and Defence coverage (ESDP). Clive Archer provides a normal historical past to the ecu Union's ESDP, the strategic scenario of Northern Europe, the most protection and defence coverage matters confronted via the states there, in addition to outlining the most theoretical issues pertaining to safeguard within the sector. Key chapters disguise the 3 Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and the 4 Nordic states of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. the chosen participants offer an research of the zone as noticeable from Brussels and of the sensible and theoretical matters bobbing up from the learn. This new textual content tackles a side of the ESDP that has formerly got little realization, and reinvigorates outdated flooring, mixing jointly analytical, theoretical and policy-relevant methods. New protection concerns in Northern Europe should be a great addition to all people with an curiosity in safety reviews, eu politics and diplomacy.
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Extra resources for New Security Issues in Northern Europe: The Nordic and Baltic States and the ESDP (Routledge Uaces Contemporary European Studies)
It would be justiﬁed to assume that the evolving energy politics in the region will increase its importance and make it more visible on the security map of the EU. The aftermath of the events of 11 September 2001 The events of 11 September strongly inﬂuenced the security policies of the North European states. The attack on the World Trade Center signiﬁed the collision between the Western world and a type of terrorism that is based on a worldview radically different from that of its targets. This type of terrorism does not recognize the terms ‘nation’, ‘neutrality’, ‘negotiated solution’ 34 Erik Ma¨nnik and ‘non-combatant’ or the United Nations Organization and international legitimacy (Archer 2004: 49).
The ﬁrst of these routes involved – paradoxically – thousands of illegally sold Russian weapons (mainly small arms), as well as more modern guns which were smuggled from the Western countries back to Russia through the Baltic states (Jamestown Monitor 1995). The second route constituted illegal export of military equipment from the Russian Federation through the Baltic states and Poland to unknown destinations. This type of smuggling has involved larger items and parts of weapons systems (Holtom 2003: 31, 41).
In 1999, 53 per cent of Russian oil and 63 per cent of Russia’s natural gas exports went to European markets. Russian exports provided 16 per cent of the EU’s oil and 19 per cent of the EU’s natural gas consumption. By 2030 EU energy imports are expected to increase from 50 to 70 per cent (Lynch 2003: 63). This trend has been seen as a sign of growing Russian leverage over the European NATO members and the EU countries (Valasˇek 2004). In turn, Russia’s extensive oil and gas exports to European markets can be viewed as increasing Russia’s dependence on the EU.