Nurse's fast cost: ailments, moment Edition offers important info on over 450 ailments in an easy-to-scan structure utilizing bulleted lists, charts, and illustrations. each one sickness is roofed on a two-page unfold that comes with pathophysiology, reasons, threat elements, issues, evaluate, therapy, nursing interventions, results, and sufferer schooling. Life-Threatening Disorder banners point out the main critical illnesses. Alert icons spotlight an important sufferer safeguard information.
This variation covers fifteen new ailments, features a newly up to date infrequent illness appendix, has extra illustrations, comprises prevention guidance sidebars, and has Special Populations icons indicating scientific advice for pediatric, geriatric, and different sufferers. more advantageous remedy sections in every one access contain names of person medications.
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Extra info for Nurse’s Quick Check: Diseases
Reassure the patient with female-pattern alopecia that hair thinning doesn’t lead to total baldness. Suggest that she wear a wig or hairpiece. qxd 8/2/12 4:21 PM Page 36 Alzheimer’s disease ❍ Pneumonia and other infections ❍ Malnutrition and dehydration Overview Assessment Description History ❍ Degenerative disorder of the cerebral cortex (espe- ❍ History obtained from a family member or caregiver ❍ Insidious onset ❍ Initial changes almost imperceptible ❍ Forgetfulness and subtle memory loss ❍ Recent memory loss ❍ Difficulty learning and remembering new information ❍ General deterioration in personal hygiene ❍ Inability to concentrate ❍ Tendency to perform repetitive actions and experi- cially the frontal lobe), which accounts for more than 50% of all cases of dementia ❍ Poor prognosis ❍ No cure or definitive treatment Pathophysiology ❍ Alzheimer’s disease is a genetic abnormality on chro- mosome 21.
Motor units no longer innervate. ❍ Progressive degeneration of axons cause loss of myelin. ❍ Progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons occurs. ❍ Progressive degeneration of motor nuclei in the cere- bral cortex and corticospinal tracts occurs. Causes ❍ Exact cause unknown ❍ 10% of patients inherit as an autosomal dominant trait ❍ Virus that creates metabolic disturbances in motor neurons ❍ Immune complexes such as those formed in autoim- mune disorders Precipitating factors that cause acute deterioration ❍ Severe stress such as myocardial infarction ❍ Traumatic injury ❍ Viral infections ❍ Physical exhaustion Incidence ❍ Three times more common in males than in females ❍ Affects people ages 40 to 70 Common characteristics ❍ Muscle weakness ❍ Atrophy ❍ Fasciculations Complications ❍ Respiratory tract infections ❍ Complications of physical immobility Assessment History ❍ Mental function intact ❍ Family history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ❍ Asymmetrical weakness first noticed in one limb 42 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ❍ Easy fatigue and easy cramping in the affected mus- cles Physical findings ❍ Location of the affected motor neurons ❍ Severity of the disease ❍ Fasciculations in the affected muscles ❍ Progressive weakness in muscles of the arms, legs, and trunk ❍ Brisk and overactive stretch reflexes ❍ Difficulty talking, chewing, swallowing, and breathing ❍ Shortness of breath and occasional drooling Test results Laboratory ❍ Cerebrospinal fluid analysis shows increased protein levels.
The vessels leak, and fluid in the retinal pigment epithelium increases, resulting in blurry vision. ❍ Unknown ❍ Genetic in origin Risk factors Incidence ❍ Affects as many as 15 million Americans ❍ Leading cause of vision loss in people older than age 60 in the United States ❍ Irreversible central vision loss in at least 10% of elderly people ❍ Atrophic form in about 85% of patients ❍ More common in whites, but affects all races Common characteristics ❍ Decreased central vision, for near and distance (see How AMD affects central vision) ❍ Progressive worsening ❍ Blind spots Complications ❍ Blindness ❍ Nystagmus How AMD affects central vision Central vision occurs in the macula and involves the ability to perceive sharp, detailed images.