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Additional resources for On planar selfdual electroweak vortices
A donor is an impurity atom, which increases the electron concentration and is called an ntype dopant. Acceptor. An acceptor is an impurity atom, which increases the hole concentration and is called a ptype dopant. Majority carriers. These are the most abundant carriers in a given semiconductor, for example, electrons in an n-type material and holes in a p-type material. Minority carriers. These are the least abundant carriers in a given semiconductor, for example, holes in an n-type material and electrons in a p-type material.
The Fermi level is near Ec and lies within the band gap under the condition of carrier non-degeneracy iii. The electron concentration is much greater than the hole concentration iv. The probability distribution function is given by: Figure 1-22 The n-type semiconductor (Ge) Figure 1-23 The p-type semiconductor (Ge) The p-type semiconductor, as shown in Fig. 1-23, has the following properties: i. The acceptor energy level EA is situated near EV and lies within the band gap ii. The Fermi level is near Ev and lies within the band gap under the condition of carrier non-degeneracy iii.
1-1) is rectangular hyperbolic in p − λ plane. The quantization condition, thus, fixes the electron momentum to one of a set of discrete values, depending on the number of wavelengths fitting the circular path. The number, known as a quantum number, determines which set of discrete energies the electron has, since the energy is directly related to the electron’s momentum. Four quantum numbers are needed to describe the electron in the hydrogen atom. Figure 1-8 Continuity of the electron wave around the nucleus resulting in an integral number of wavelengths fitting into any circular path It should be noted that an electron freed from its parent nucleus can have any wavelength, and hence any kinetic energy.